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Want To Know About The Most Expensive Cars In The World ?-2017


THE 10 MOST EXPENSIVE CARS IN THE WORLD


By Andrew Hard and Stephen Edelstein — Updated June 20, 2017 9:14 am


The most expensive cars in the world are about so much more than transportation. These rolling art pieces encapsulate the priorities of the one percent, and in that universe, flamboyance and swagger take precedence over practicality and efficiency. Lifestyle criticisms aside, these are truly mind-boggling machines, and we’d like to count down our favorites for you here.

For the sake of clarity, we’re categorizing recently made, road-legal production vehicles only — limited runs notwithstanding — and we’re leaving out classic cars sold at auction. We’re also limiting the list to one entrant per nameplate, so don’t expect 10 different iterations of the same Bugatti Veyron. And these aren’t necessarily the fastest cars in the world (though many of them are damn fast).

So whether your name is Buffet, Gates, Bezos, or McDuck, these rides are for you — the most exorbitant people-carriers on the planet. They say money can’t buy happiness, but after viewing this list of the most expensive cars, you just might beg to differ.

$4.8 MILLION — KOENIGSEGG CCXR TREVITA



Koenigsegg makes its first appearance on our list with the CCXR Trevita, and it does so as the most expensive street-legal production car in the world. Why so much coin? With no exaggeration, the car is literally coated in diamonds … and diamonds aren’t cheap.

For the Trevita, the Swedish manufacturer developed a new exterior finish called the Koenigsegg Proprietary Diamond Weave, which involves coating carbon fibers with a diamond dust-impregnated resin. We can’t even fathom how much the touch-up paint costs.

Underneath the lustrous finish lies a 4.8-liter, dual-supercharged V8 with a total output of 1,004 horsepower and 797 pound-feet of torque, which means it should have little to no trouble overtaking semis on the freeway. The car’s specifications — in both performance and price — are nearly comical at this point, and just three were ever made.


Watch the Koenigsegg and its successor drag race

$4.5 MILLION — LAMBORGHINI VENENO



Poison. That’s the name Lamborghini chose for the modified Aventador roadster you see above — translated from Spanish of course — built to celebrate the automaker’s 50th birthday. We can’t speak for the company’s motivations, but the name is fitting for a vehicle that looks so positively deadly, so undeniably venomous.

The car is absolutely stunning from every angle, and to this day, we’re not convinced it isn’t an alien spacecraft surveying our planet for eventual takeover. It just doesn’t seem real. The only thing more remarkable than the look is the price — a whopping $4.5 million, clearly putting it on our list of the most expensive cars.

The Veneno is fast, and that should come as no surprise. Its 6.5-liter V12 spins all the way up to 8,400 rpm to deliver 740 hp and 507 lb-ft, surging the car to 60 mph in 2.9 seconds.

A Veneno for sale in Germany listed at $6.2 million

$3.4 MILLION — W MOTORS LYKAN HYPERSPORT



You may recall the Lykan Hypersport from its starring role in the blockbuster Furious 7, in which the Lebanese supercar crashed through not one but three skyscrapers in Dubai. In a franchise filled with high-end exotics and one-off custom creations, the fact that the Hypersport got so much focus is a testament to its magnetism.

Let’s start with the styling, which includes jewel-encrusted headlights, scissor doors, and an interior ripped straight from science fiction. It looks like a pissed off armored car from the future, and its performance is right on par with its image. The Hypersport boasts a 3.7-liter, twin-turbo flat-six that yields 770 hp and 708 lb-ft.


It’s not just Dominic Toretto who benefits from this level of performance, though: The Abu Dhabi police force has drafted the Hypersport into patrol duty. Although it’s mainly used for marketing and public relations purposes, the high-flying stunner assures that the authorities can keep up with any baddie who tries to get cute on the freeway. Pedal to the floor, 0 to 62 mph is accomplished in just 2.8 seconds, and top speed is a downright scary 240 mph.

Check out Abu Dhabi’s multi-million-dollar police car

$3.4 MILLION — LIMITED EDITION BUGATTI VEYRON BY MANSORY VIVERE



This list wouldn’t be complete without some version of the mighty Bugatti Veyron. We’re shining our spotlight on the the Mansory Vivere edition here, because not only is it one of the fastest cars in the world, it’s one of the most expensive.

Augmented by German witch doctors Mansory, the 1,200-hp Veyron starts out as a Grand Sport Vitesse Roadster, only to be adorned with a gorgeous carbon-fiber body, a new spoiler package, upgraded LED lights, a revamped cabin, and a redesigned front grill. Further classifying the Veyron as a work of art, maps of historic race events like the Targa Florio are laser etched into the exterior and interior. Oh, and it can do 254 mph.

Read more about the Mansory Vivere

$3 MILLION — FERRARI PININFARINA SERGIO



With an asking price of $3 million, the Ferrari Sergio isn’t the most expensive car on our list. It is, however, one of the most highly-coveted vehicles in the world, as only six were ever made.

Crafted by legendary Italian design house Pininfarina, the Sergio is essentially a Ferrari 458 Spider with a completely new body and interior. That means a 4.5-liter V8 sends a whopping 562 hp to the rear wheels, but because the Sergio is lighter than the 458, it’s quicker and handles better. The new body doesn’t just save weight — it’s chock-full of interesting details like aerodynamic headrests that are built directly into the roll cage.

With so few examples built, the Sergio’s purchase process wasn’t as simple as strolling up to a Ferrari dealership. No, each owner was chosen by automaker itself, making it one of the rare invite-only vehicles in automotive history.


Read more about the Pininfarina Sergio

$2.6 MILLION — PAGANI HUAYRA BC



With an AMG-sourced V12 and the second fastest road-legal Top Gear lap ever, the Pagani Huayra is a beast through and through — it’s named after the Incan god of winds, after all. That wasn’t quite enough for Pagani, however. At the 2016 Geneva Motor Show, Pagani debuted the Huayra BC, a lighter, hotter version that takes no prisoners.

Right off the bat, you can tell the BC is playing a different game from the standard Huayra. It’s fitted with an enormous active rear spoiler that generates 1,102 pounds of downforce at 155 mph, as well as a wider rear track, new side skirts, and a bevy of sexy aero goodies. Despite the additions, the BC is a true featherweight, tipping the scales at a paltry 2,654 pounds thanks to the extensive use of carbon fiber and other lightweight materials. The whole deal will cost you a cool $2.6 million (or it would have, if all 20 units hadn’t sold already), but you clearly get a lot for your money. With 789 turbocharged ponies on tap, the BC may actually live up to its godly name.

Read more about the Pagani Huayra

$2.5 MILLION — FERRARI F60 AMERICA



To celebrate Ferrari’s 60-year tenure in North America, the Italian brand built 10 examples of this stunning bombshell. Based on the F12 Berlinetta, the F60 is undeniably patriotic as it wears a Stars and Stripes color scheme, American flag seat inserts, and classic racing livery all around. Better yet, you can experience the glory with the top down, as the F60 features a lightweight fabric top that can be operated at speeds up to 75 mph.


The supercar is mechanically identical to the F12, but the Berlinetta isn’t exactly a Fiat Panda to begin with. Its 6.2-liter V12 churns out 740 glorious hp, enough to propel the car to 60 mph in only 3.1 seconds. The ultra rare flag-waver harks back to Ferrari’s bespoke past, as the company built several region-specific sports cars in the 1950s and 1960s.

Read more about the Ferrari F60 America

$2.5 MILLION — BUGATTI CHIRON



How do you follow up a classic? You make something even better.

With a starting price of $2.5 million and a gorgeous new body, the divine Chiron outdoes its predecessor in every conceivable way. While the Bugatti Veyron redefined what an automobile could do, the Chiron laughs at those who said the Veyron was the last of its kind, pushing the boundaries of performance even further into the stratosphere.

The supercar’s monstrous specs are made possible by its reworked quad-turbocharged 8.0-liter W16, which now produces 1,500 hp and a monstrous 1,180 lb-ft. Sixty mph is dealt with in a rather quick 2.5 seconds on the way to the Chiron’s top speed, which is limited to 261 mph. It’s still not the fastest car in the world — that title belongs the Hennessey Venom GT — but cars like these aren’t just about speed; they’re about making statements. We think you’ll agree this Bugatti makes a very strong statement indeed.

Read more about the Bugatti Chiron

$2 MILLION — KOENIGSEGG ONE:1



You can buy a lot with $2 million — a really nice house, about 80 Mazda MX-5’s, or the Swedish “megacar” shown above. A logical thinker could probably think of a better way to spend your life savings, but megacars don’t give a damn about logic. Because they’re mega. And after reading what the car is capable of, $2 million might actually be a steal.


The limited-edition One:1 is based on the Agera R, and it earned its poetic moniker by employing a 1:1 kilogram-to-horsepower ratio. The figure on each side of the colon? 1,340. That’s right, this car has 1,340 hp, and can theoretically top 273 mph because of it. Simply put, this is one of the fastest automobiles ever made, and with its F1-style honeycomb core, carbon-fiber intake manifold, and ventilated ceramic brakes, it’s one of the most advanced as well.

Just six examples of the speedy Swede were built, and each one was sold quite quickly. Keep an eye out on Craigslist — you never know.

Read more about the Koenigsegg One:1

$2 MILLION — KOENIGSEGG REGERA



When we think of hybrid hypercars, we generally fantasize about the “holy trinity” — aka, the McLaren P1, Porsche 918 Spyder, and Ferrari LaFerrari. Somehow, Koenigsegg always gets left out, despite the fact that the Swedish automaker makes a vehicle that outshines its electrified competition in many ways.

Powered by a twin-turbo 5.0-liter V8 and a 4.5-kWh battery pack, the $2 million Regera produces an outstanding 1,500 hp in total, a stat made all the more impressive when you consider the car’s low weight of 3,240 lbs. Zero to 60 in 2.8 seconds is impressive to be sure, but the Regera’s 0 to 186 mph sprint is even more mind-blowing — the feat is accomplished in only 10.9 seconds. By Koenigsegg’s internal estimates, the car will be able to reach its top speed of 248 mph in just 20 seconds or so, which is a triumph over physics as much as it is a bragging right.

Why just an estimate? Apparently, the brand can’t find a road long enough.

Read more about the Koenigsegg Regera

HONORABLE MENTIONS

$8 MILLION — MERCEDES-BENZ MAYBACH EXELERO



By far the most expensive car on our list, the Maybach Exelero makes its appearance under Honorable Mentions due to its one-off status. The Maybach was also built way back in 2004, but that actually makes its sticker price more impressive.


Adjusted for inflation, the Exelero would cost around $10.1 million in the U.S. today, which is close to the GDP of a small island nation. Money and Maybach are about as closely related as peanut butter and jelly, but the two-door further justifies its cost with a 700 hp, twin-turbo V12 and luxurious amenities.

Read more about the Maybach Exelero

$2.7 MILLION — LAFERRARI FXX K



The Ferrari LaFerrari is a vehicle held back by one thing — the law. Emissions standards and safety equipment add considerable bulk to a near-perfect machine, so for the track-only FXX K, the car bows only to physics.

The “standard” car’s output of 950 hp was boosted to a downright silly 1,035 hp in FXX K guise, and its various body modifications have increased downforce by up to 50 percent. Even the tires are space age, as the slick Pirellis feature embedded sensors to keep tabs on longitudinal, lateral, and radial acceleration, as well as temperature and pressure. Until Ferrari invents some sort of road-going hyperdrive, this is about as good as a performance car gets.

Read more about the Ferrari LaFerrari FXX K

$2.3 MILLION — ASTON MARTIN VULCAN



Purpose-built track cars seem to be all the rage these days, and Aston Martin recently jumped on the bandwagon in a big way. The Vulcan isn’t legal on the road — hence its honorable mention status — but if you happened to snag one of the 24 examples made, you’re very lucky indeed.

The Vulcan may look like a spaceship, but it’s actually a tribute to old-school analog feel. Instead of a high-tech hybrid system, it relies on the pure grunt of a naturally-aspirated 7.0-liter V12. That massive engine produces over 800 hp, which is sent to the rear wheels through a six-speed sequential gearbox.

The car itself is built around a carbon-fiber monocoque, ensuring those 800 horses don’t have much to push around. In fact, Aston claims the Vulcan has a better power-to-weight ratio than some of its race cars. And if that isn’t hardcore enough, Aston required owners to train in a Vantage GT4 racer and a One-77 before stepping into their Vulcans. Now that’s serious performance.


READ MORE ABOUT THE ASTON MARTIN VULCAN

$2.2 MILLION — LAMBORGHINI SESTO ELEMENTO



The Sesto Elemento embraces minimalism like few other cars on the planet; its chassis, body, drive shaft, and suspension components are all crafted from carbon fiber, meaning this 570-hp demon weighs less than a Honda Fit. As you might expect, the upshot is incredible.

Zero to 60 mph comes in a motorbike-rivaling 2.5 seconds, and the car will sniff 200 mph if you have enough road. With that type of acceleration, you won’t notice the lack of infotainment, massaging seats, or hand-stitched upholstery, because this car is meant for one thing — speed. It does have air conditioning and a stereo, though.

Why an honorable mention? Like the FXX K and Vulcan, the Elemento is confined to the track only.

Read more about the Lamborghini Sesto Elemento

$2 MILLION — MCLAREN P1 GTR



If you’re one of those people who finds the McLaren P1 tame, first off, see a doctor. After that, check out the track-only version. Called the P1 GTR, it references the McLaren F1 GTR racer from the 1990s, but the P1 GTR is no race car. Like the Vulcan, FXX K, and Sesto Elemento, it’s built to go around a circuit as fast as possible, just for fun.

The GTR uses the same 3.8-liter twin turbocharged V8 hybrid powertrain as the “standard” P1, but it’s tuned to produce 986 hp instead of 903 hp. McLaren also stripped out what minimal luxuries there were in the P1 cabin, stiffened up the suspension, and added more aggressive aerodynamic elements (check out that rear wing). The upgrades increase downforce by 10 percent at 150 mph, a speed that should be fairly easy to achieve.

Because it’s a track-only car, the P1 GTR gets honorable-mention status here. A British company called Lanzante has committed to making a road-legal version. That seems a bit redundant, as owning the standard, already-road-legal P1 was a pre-requisite to buying the GTR.

Read more about the McLaren P1 GTR


$1.9 MILLION — LAMBORGHINI CENTENARIO LP 770-4



Ferruccio Lamborghini, the man who founded one of Italy’s most iconic car brands, would have turned 100 years old in 2016. To celebrate, Lamborghini created the Centenario, a $1.9 million magnum opus that is equally at home on the racetrack as it is on a bedroom wall poster — and clearly one of the most expensive cars in the world.

Longer, larger, yet lighter than the Aventador supercar, the carbon-fiber Centenario features an exterior that is both beautiful and functional. The aerodynamic bumper fins, hood vents, wheel blades, and powerful rear haunches are all sculpted to keep the limited-edition vehicle glued to the ground, and Lambo says the Centenario is twice as aerodynamically efficient as the Aventador.

And then there’s the power. Simply put, the Centenario is equipped with the most extreme engine Lamborghini has ever built, as the 6.5-liter V12 pumps out a whopping 770 hp at 8,600 rpm. Given its low weight of 3,351 pounds, the Raging Bull demolishes 60 mph in just 2.8 seconds, and it’ll scream its way to 220 mph given enough space.

Read our interview with the head of Lamborghini’s R&D team

$1.4 MILLION+ — FERRARI LAFERRARI APERTA



The Ferrari LaFerrari hardtop debuted in 2013 alongside the McLaren P1 and Porsche 918 Spyder as part of the “holy trinity” of hybrid supercars, but it quickly disappeared after a production run of just 499 units. Now it’s back open-top Aperta form.

The LaFerrari Aperta combines an open-air driving experience with the V12 hybrid goodness of the original LaFerrari. A 6.3-liter twelve-cylinder engine is mated to a Kinetic Energy Recover System inspired by the ones used in Ferrari’s F1 cars. The result is 949 hp and 663 lb-ft. Like the hardtop, the Aperta will do 0 to 60 mph in less than 3.0 seconds, and reach a top speed of 217 mph.


Ferrari won’t say how many copies of the Aperta it will make, or how much they will cost. But the production run is likely sold out, and customers almost certainly paid a premium over the $1.4 million asking price of the LaFerrari hardtop. Since we don’t know for sure, the LaFerrari Aperta is an honorable mention, for now.

Read more about the Ferrari LaFerrari Aptera

$1.4 MILLION — ASTON MARTIN ONE-77



To be sure, 1.4 million is a popular number in the supercar world, because that’s what it took to get your hands on this limited-edition Aston. We say “took” because all 77 units have been spoken for, so if you were hoping to channel your inner Bond with this car, your luck has unfortunately run out.

Arguably the most classically handsome car on this list, the One-77 is built around a carbon-fiber monocoque chassis, with a handcrafted aluminum body providing its sophisticated, aggressive look.

Under the vented hood lurks a naturally aspirated V12 that displaces 7.3 liters, which is a lot. It produces 750 hp and 553 lb-ft, which is also a lot. Those numbers make the One-77 the fastest Aston Martin ever made, as this spy chaser will top 220 mph in the right conditions. From a stop, it’ll do 0 to 60 mph in 3.5 seconds.

Read more about the Aston Martin One-77

$1.2 MILLION — ZENVO TS1 GT



Zenvo is probably best known for being the only supercar manufacturer from Denmark, and for an unfortunate Top Gear test in which one of its cars caught fire on the track. The company persevered through that moment of bad publicity, building an even more extreme supercar to celebrate its 10th anniversary.

The Zenvo TS1 GT’s creators nicknamed this beast “Sleipnir,” after the Norse god Odin’s eight-legged horse. To live up to that name, Zenvo equipped the TS1 GT with a 5.8-liter twin-supercharged V8 that churns out 1,163 hp and 811 lb-ft. All of that power goes to the rear wheels through a seven-speed transmission developed by Zenvo itself. The company claims this gearbox can shift faster than the transmissions in Formula One racers.


The car itself is pretty quick too. Zenvo claims it’ll do 0 to 62 mph in 2.8 seconds and reach a top speed of 233 mph — and that’s with an electronic limiter engaged. On the inside, the TS1 GT is covered with switches and instruments made from copper and rhodium, a setup Zenvo says cost more than an entire Porsche 911 R.

Read more about the Zenvo TS1 GT

$1.1 MILLION — ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM SERENITY



It used to be that owning one of the most expensive cars in the world was a sufficient display of wealth. Today, however, it seems like every YouTube rap sensation or Saudi Prince can afford a Maybach. Rare models just don’t seem rare any more. Enter the bespoke car. Luxury manufacturers have begun to emphasize customization, creating unique takes on high-end models that are as much pieces of art as they are automobiles. Case in point: The Rolls-Royce Phantom Serenity, a unique version of the well-known Phantom coupe with a tranquil pearl paint job and an interior that draws on Japanese artwork.

While the outside of the car is the very portrait of austerity, the interior is a temple to opulence, with silk upholstery inspired by the textiles of imperial China. Blossoms drawn in classic Japanese style adorn the walls of the Serenity, emphasizing the zen aesthetic. The technical aspects of the Phantom are well-documented; it handles well and can go from 0 to 60 mph in under 6.0 seconds. What makes the Serenity unique is its singular aesthetic, a commitment to luxury that makes it seem more like a royal litter than a car. Rolls-Royce is banking on the Serenity as a harbinger of things to come in the luxury car market, of a future where the wealthy commission bespoke cars just as the princes of Italy funded renaissance paintings. Those who want this rare beast may be out of luck; so far, only one exists.

Real Story About DJ Khaled.

DJ Khaled

Not to be confused with Khaled (musician) or Khalid (singer).


Khaled Mohamed Khaled (born November 26, 1975),[1] known professionally as DJ Khaled, is an American record producer, radio personality, DJ, record label executive, and author. He previously went by the name Arab Attack, but changed it after the 9/11 attacks, as he did not want to appear insensitive.[2] He was a radio host for the Miami-based urban music radio station WEDR “99 Jamz” and the DJ for the hip hop group Terror Squad. From 2004 to 2006, Khaled assisted in the production of the hip-hop albums Real Talk by Fabolous, True Story by Terror Squad, All or Nothing and Me, Myself, & I by Fat Joe.[3]

DJ Khaled

DJ Khaled in 2012
Background information
Birth name Khaled Mohamed Khaled
Also known as
Beat Novacane Arab Attack
Born November 26, 1975 (age 41)
New Orleans, Louisiana, US
Origin Miami, Florida, U.S.
Genres
Hip hop R&B
Occupation(s)
A&R record producer DJ radio personality rapper hype man
Instruments
Turntables keyboards sampler
Years active 1998–present
Labels
We the Best Roc Nation Epic (current) Young Money Cash Money Terror Squad Republic Def Jam South E1 (former)
Associated acts
Ace Hood Big Sean Birdman Bun B Busta Rhymes Chris Brown Drake Fat Joe Future Jadakiss Jeremih Lil Wayne Meek Mill Nas Rick Ross Terror Squad T.I. T-Pain
In 2006, Khaled released his debut studio album Listennn… the Album. He went on to release We the Best (2007), We Global (2008), Victory (2010), We the Best Forever (2011), Kiss the Ring (2012) and Suffering from Success (2013). In 2009, Khaled became the president of record label Def Jam South and he is also the CEO and founder of We the Best Music Group.[4] Khaled released his eighth studio album, I Changed a Lot, on October 23, 2015. In July 2016 he released his ninth studio album Major Key, and on June 23, 2017, his tenth studio album, Grateful, was released.

Biography

1975–2003: Early life and career beginnings
Khaled was born on November 26, 1975, in New Orleans, Louisiana, to Palestinian parents who had immigrated to the United States. He has described himself as a devout Muslim.[5] His parents were musicians and played Arabic music. Khaled started developing an interest in rap and soul music at a young age and his parents supported his interest. He took up work in a local record store which helped to lay foundations for his music career.[6][7] His brother Alec Ledd (Alla Khaled) is an actor.[8]

During his early career, Khaled got acquainted with several young artists and helped them before their breakthrough; these include Birdman, Lil Wayne, and Mavado. One of his first jobs was at the New Orleans record store Odyssey where he met both Birdman and Lil Wayne in 1993.[9] After leaving Odyssey, he began DJing in reggae soundclashes, mixing dancehall and hip-hop. His first radio gig was on a pirate station. In 1998, he moved to Miami and co-hosted The Luke Show on WEDR “99 Jamz” with 2 Live Crew’s Luther Campbell. In 2003, he started hosting a weeknight radio show on 99 Jamz.[4][7][9] During his career, Khaled has used many monikers including Arab Attack, Big Dog Pitbull, Terror Squadian (used during his time with the hip!hop group Terror Squad), Beat Novacane (a moniker under which he produces beats), The Don Dada, Mr. Miami etc. Khaled has stated that he used the moniker Arab Attack for music as in saying “attack with music”, but it was soon discontinued by him after September 11 attacks since he felt that using it would seem disrespectful and offending towards those who suffered due to the attacks.[10][11][12]

2006–08: Listennn… the Album, We the Best, and We Global
On June 6, 2006, his debut album Listennn… the Album was released by Koch Records; it premiered on the US Billboard 200 chart at number 12.[13] We the Best (2007) is his second album with singles “I’m So Hood” with T-Pain, Trick Daddy, Plies, and Rick Ross and “We Takin’ Over” with Akon, T.I., Rick Ross, Fat Joe, Birdman, and Lil Wayne. “We Takin’ Over” peaked at number 28 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and number 11 on the US Hot Rap Tracks chart and was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America on November 20, 2007.[14] Khaled made a guest appearance on Birdman’s 2007 album 5 * Stunna on the single “100 Million”; which also features Rick Ross, Dre, Young Jeezy and Lil Wayne. That year, Khaled won two Ozone Awards: one for Best Video (“We Takin’ Over”) and another for Best Radio DJ.[15]

In 2008, Khaled’s third album We Global came out with singles “Out Here Grindin” with Akon, Rick Ross, Lil’ Boosie, Trick Daddy, Ace Hood, and Plies, followed by “Go Hard” featuring Kanye West and T-Pain. RIAA certified the single “I’m So Hood” Platinum on June 4, 2008.[14] That year, Khaled won DJ of the Year awards from the BET Hip Hop Awards and Ozone Awards.[16][17] He was appointed the president of Def Jam South in 2009.[18]

2010–12: Victory, We the Best Forever, and Kiss the Ring
His fourth studio album Victory was released on March 2, 2010. The album featured guest appearances from Drake, Lil Wayne, Rick Ross, Nas, Snoop Dogg, Ludacris, Nelly, and more. The single “All I Do Is Win” featuring Ludacris, Rick Ross, Snoop Dogg, and T-Pain was certified as a double-platinum single. Other singles include: “Put Your Hands Up” featuring Ross, Young Jeezy, Plies, and Schife, and “Fed Up” featuring Usher, Drake, Ross, and Jeezy. The album had low sales and debuted at number 12 on the Billboard 200.

DJ Khaled announced the title of the album, We the Best Forever, on Twitter.[19] On August 19, Khaled signed to Cash Money Records along to Universal Motown, the album will be released under the label, also under E1 Entertainment, Terror Squad, Def Jam South, and Khaled’s own label We the Best Music Group, with confirmed guests as Fat Joe, Chris Brown, Keyshia Cole, Cee Lo Green, Cool & Dre, Rick Ross, Kanye West, Jay-Z, Nas, Birdman, Lil Wayne, T.I., Akon, Drake, and Nicki Minaj[20][21][22][23] The first single titled “Welcome to My Hood”, featuring Rick Ross, Plies, Lil Wayne and T-Pain was released in January 13 of 2011, which was produced by The Renegades, and co-produced by DJ Khaled himself and The Nasty Beatmakers. The song is the first released under Cash Money Records and Universal Motown,[24] a music video was filmed in Miami, Florida and directed by Gil Green, featuring cameos by Flo Rida, Bow Wow, Busta Rhymes, and other artists.[25] The next single, “I’m On One”, featuring Drake, Rick Ross and Lil Wayne, was released on May 20, 2011. DJ Khaled performed the song at BET Awards 2011 which aired on June 26, 2011.[26]

On December 10, 2011, DJ Khaled announced the title of his next album, Kiss the Ring, via a video, with the release date as “coming soon”, presumed 2012.[27] Guests on the album are T-Pain, French Montana, Future, Wiz Khalifa, Nas, Plies, Ace Hood, Kanye West, Rick Ross, Meek Mill, Big Sean, 2 Chainz, Jadakiss, Kirko Bangz, Mack Maine, Tyga, T.I., J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar, Big K.R.I.T., Mavado, Wale and many more. Khaled mentioned that he had a verse from someone very special which was later revealed as Scarface. The first single released was “Take It to the Head” featuring Chris Brown, Rick Ross, Nicki Minaj and Lil Wayne. The second single released was “I Wish You Would” featuring Kanye West and Rick Ross. Kiss the Ring was released on August 21, 2012.[28] The third official single was “Bitches and Bottles” featuring T.I, Lil Wayne, and Future.

2013–15: Suffering from Success and I Changed a Lot
In January 2013, DJ Khaled announced that he had started working on his seventh album and that it was titled Suffering from Success. After going to a doctor due to a bald spot on his beard the doctor told him he was “suffering from success” which inspired the album title.

The first single from the album is titled “No New Friends” and features Drake, Lil Wayne and Rick Ross, along with production coming from Boi-1da and Noah “40” Shebib.[29] On April 14, 2013 DJ Khaled released a promotional video for Suffering for Success and the first single “No New Friends”.[30] The single was premiered the following day and released to iTunes of April 19, 2013.[31][32] “No New Friends” has since debuted at #55 on the Billboard Hot 100. On June 10, 2013, it was announced that Suffering from Success would be released on September 24, 2013.[33] On July 25, 2013, Khaled publicly “proposed” to fellow Cash Money artist Nicki Minaj via MTV. He supported his offer with a 10-karat diamond ring from Rafaello & Co., valued at about $500,000.[34] Later, he reaffirmed his proposal in an interview with Power 106’s DJ Felli Fel, stating: “I ain’t a young boy no more. I’m on my thinking the future. I just had to be honest. I always liked her. She’s my friend, of course. And I like her. It’s more than a crush.”[35] On July 29, 2013, in an interview with Funkmaster Flex, Minaj denied Khaled’s proposal, saying: “Khaled is my brother and Khaled was not serious with that damn proposal, ya’ll. Please let it go. He was kidding.”[36] The same day, Flex premiered Khaled’s new single, titled “I Wanna Be with You” which featured Minaj, as well as frequent collaborators Future and Rick Ross. This lead some to believe that his proposal was a “publicity stunt” to promote his new single.[37][38]

On April 28, 2014, DJ Khaled announced in an interview with MTV that Jay Z will be featured on his new single. The interview was noted due to Khaled “cursing, gesturing, and tossing the microphone to the floor in an effort to convey the importance and impact of the music he has coming this summer.”[39] A few hours after that, he released the single called “They Don’t Love You No More”, also featuring frequent collaborators Rick Ross, Meek Mill and French Montana. The song will be on his eight studio album titled I Changed A Lot, which was released in 2015.[40][41] The following day, “They Don’t Love You No More” was serviced to mainstream urban radio in the United States.[42] On July 1, 2014, Khaled announced that he has partnered with Danish audio company Bang & Olufsen to launch his own brand of headphones, titled “We the Best Sound”.[43] The brand is advertised in the video “They Don’t Love You No More.” On August 8, 2014, Khaled released the official artwork for the second single from I Changed A Lot entitled “Hold You Down” which features Chris Brown, August Alsina, Future and Jeremih, and is produced by Bkorn, Lee On the Beats and LDB. The single was released on August 11, 2014, along with a music video, directed by Gil Green.[44] On November 3, 2014, Khaled released the remix to “Hold You Down” featuring Usher, Rick Ross, Fabolous, and Ace Hood.

On May 11, 2015, DJ Khaled revealed that he had parted ways with Cash Money Records, amicably. “I’m not signed to Cash Money at all. I’ve been off for a minute”, Khaled revealed. “It’s not that I’m here to promote that I’ve been off. That’s family. But, nah, it’s just We The Best. Nothing negative, everything’s beautiful.”[45] On the same day, DJ Khaled released the third single off the upcoming album I Changed a Lot titled “How Many Times”, featuring Chris Brown, Lil Wayne and Big Sean produced Bkorn, Lee on the Beats and OZ.[46] DJ Khaled revealed that his long delayed album, I Changed A Lot, released on October 23, 2015 and also revealed the album’s artwork.

2016–present: Major Key and Grateful
On February 5, 2016, DJ Khaled premiered the debut his new We The Best Radio show on Beats 1 with the premiere of Future’s fourth studio album EVOL.[47] On February 14, 2016, DJ Khaled announced that he would debut French Montana’s new mixtape on We The Best Radio.[48] The Wave Gods titled mixtape premiered on February 19, 2016.[49] On February 29, 2016, Khaled signed a management-only deal with Jay Z’s company, Roc Nation and announced his ninth studio album, Major Key, was going to be released in 2016, specifically on July 29, and has a lion on the cover.[50][51] On June 3, 2016, Khaled released the first single off Major Key, “For Free” which is produced by the OVO team of Nineteen85 and Jordan Ullman.[52] He also announced his album will feature Jay Z, Future, Kanye West, Big Sean, Lil Wayne, and Rick Ross.[52] He later released a track called “I Got the Keys” with Jay Z and Future, that premiered after the 2016 BET Awards.[51][52]

On December 24, 2016, Khaled announced on Twitter that he’s working on his tenth studio album.[53] In January 2017, he was seen in the studio on his Snapchat with potential collaborators, such as Chance the Rapper, Justin Bieber, Migos and Mariah Carey.[54][55]

On February 9, 2017, DJ Khaled announced his tenth studio album titled Grateful and said that it was going to be released in 2017.[56] On February 12, 2017, DJ Khaled released the lead single to Grateful titled “Shining” featuring Beyoncé and Jay Z on Tidal and iTunes.

He has made a cameo appearance in Spider-Man: Homecoming.[57]

Internet popularity

In late 2015–16, a number of Snapchat videos of Khaled’s detailing his “key to success” received significant attention on the internet due to his larger-than-life persona, mainly popularized by the YouTube channel h3h3Productions. This newfound online recognition caused him to gain popularity; becoming an “internet phenomenon”, with some now describing him as a “living meme” or “meme in human form”.[58][59][60]

Personal life

Khaled is engaged to Nicole Tuck, who gave birth to their son, Asahd, on October 23, 2016.[61]

In October 2016, he became the face of “Ciroc Mango” and starred in CÎROC’s new episode of “Let’s Get It” called “Let’s Get It: Khaled’s Odyssey”.[62]

Writing

In 2016, he penned a book called The Keys, which included his opinions on success, real life stories, and mogul talk.[63]

Discography

Main article: DJ Khaled discography
Listennn… the Album (2006)
We the Best (2007)
We Global (2008)
Victory (2010)
We the Best Forever (2011)
Kiss the Ring (2012)
Suffering from Success (2013)
I Changed a Lot (2015)
Major Key (2016)
Grateful (2017)[56]
Recurring collaborators

This chart lists every artist who has appeared in at least three different albums by DJ Khaled (including bonus tracks and remixes). His most frequent collaborator is Rick Ross, who has appeared on 35 songs, among all ten of Khaled’s albums so far.[64] Lil Wayne has appeared on nine, whilst Jadakiss has appeared on eight and Birdman has appeared on seven.[needs update]

Artist Listennn… the Album We the Best We Global Victory We the Best Forever Kiss the Ring Suffering from Success I Changed a Lot Major Key Grateful Total
Rick Ross           10
Lil Wayne   [a]        9
Jadakiss         8
Birdman        7
Ace Hood       6
Big Sean       6
Fat Joe       6
Jeezy       6
Mavado       6
Plies       6
Akon      5
Bun B      5
Busta Rhymes      5
Chris Brown      5
Drake      5
Future      5
Nas      5
T.I.      5
T-Pain      [b] 5
2 Chainz     4
Fabolous     4
French Montana     4
Jay Z     4
Jeremih     4
John Legend     4
Meek Mill     4
Nicki Minaj     4
Trick Daddy     4
Wale     4
Beanie Sigel    3
Boosie Badazz    3
Brisco    3
The Game    3
J. Cole    3
Jim Jones    3
Ludacris    3
Pitbull    3
Vado    3
Kanye West    3
Wiz Khalifa    3
Notes

^[a] Lil Wayne was featured on the original version of “Out Here Grindin” but his verse was removed from the album and video versions.
^[b] archived recording[citation needed]
Awards and nominations

BET Awards
2008, Best Music Collaboration (“I’m So Hood (Remix)”) with Young Jeezy, Ludacris, Busta Rhymes, Big Boi, Lil Wayne, Fat Joe, Birdman, & Rick Ross (Nominated)[65]
BET Hip Hop Awards
Year Nominee/work Award Result
2007 “We Takin’ Over” (with Akon, T.I., Rick Ross, Fat Joe, Birdman, & Lil Wayne) Best Hip-Hop Collabo Nominated[66]
People’s Champ Award[67] Nominated
2008 “I’m So Hood (Remix)” (with Young Jeezy, Ludacris, Busta Rhymes, Big Boi, Lil Wayne, Fat Joe, Birdman, & Rick Ross) Best Collaboration Won[68]
Himself MVP of the Year[69] Won
DJ of the Year Nominated[70]
2009 Nominated
2010 Won
“All I Do Is Win (Remix)” (featuring Rick Ross, T-Pain, Busta Rhymes, P. Diddy, Fabolous, Fat Joe, Jadakiss & Nicki Minaj) Reese’s Perfect Combo Award Nominated
“All I Do Is Win” (featuring T-Pain, Ludacris, Rick Ross & Snoop Dogg) Best Club Banger Nominated
2011 “I’m on One” (featuring Drake, Rick Ross and Lil Wayne) Nominated
Reese’s Perfect Combo Award (Best Collab) Nominated
Best Hip Hop Video Nominated
Himself DJ of the Year Won
2012 Won
2013 Nominated
2014 Nominated
2015 Nominated
2016[71] Won
MVP of the Year Won
Hustler of the Year Won
“I Got the Keys” (featuring Jay Z & Future) Best Hip Hop Video Nominated
Best Collabo, Duo or Group Nominated
“For Free” (featuring Drake) Nominated
People’s Champ Award Nominated
I Changed a Lot Album of the Year Nominated
Grammy Awards
The Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States. Khaled has 2 nominations.

Year Nominee/work Award Result
2012 “I’m on One” (featuring Rick Ross, Drake & Lil Wayne) Best Rap/Song Collaboration Nominated
2017 Major Key Best Rap Album Nominated
Ozone Awards
2008, DJ of the Year (Won)[72]
2007, Best Video, (“We Takin’ Over”, directed by Gil Green) (Won)[73]
2007, Best Radio DJ (Won)[73]

References

Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise note

What Is Viagra? And It’s Side Effects…

18+

Sildenafil
“Viagra

Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.[3] Its effectiveness for treating sexual dysfunction in women has not been demonstrated.[3]

Sildenafil


Clinical data
Pronunciation /sɪlˈdɛnəfɪl/ sil-DEN-ə-fil
Trade names Viagra, Revatio, others
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a699015
License data
EU EMA: by Sildenafil
US FDA: Sildenafil
Pregnancy
category
AU: B1
US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration By mouth (tablets), IV
ATC code
G04BE03 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
AU: S4 (Prescription only)
CA: ℞-only
UK: POM (Prescription only)
US: ℞-only
In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 41% (mean)[1]
Protein binding ~96%
Metabolism Liver: CYP3A4 (major route), CYP2C9 (minor route)
Metabolites N-desmethylsildenafil (~50% potency for PDE5)
Biological half-life 3–4 hours
Excretion Feces (~80%), urine (~13%)[2]
Identifiers
IUPAC name
5-{2-Ethoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl]phenyl}-1-methyl-3-propyl-1H,6H,7H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one
CAS Number
139755-83-2 
Citrate: 171599-83-0 
PubChem CID
5212
DrugBank
DB00203 
ChemSpider
5023 
UNII
3M7OB98Y7H
KEGG
D08514 
ChEBI
CHEBI:9139 
ChEMBL
CHEMBL192 
PDB ligand
VIA (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
ECHA InfoCard 100.122.676
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H30N6O4S
Molar mass 474.5764 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Interactive image
SMILES
CCCC1=NN(C2=C1NC(=NC2=O)C3=C(C=CC(=C3)S(=O)(=O)N4CCN(CC4)C)OCC)C
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H30N6O4S/c1-5-7-17-19-20(27(4)25-17)22(29)24-21(23-19)16-14-15(8-9-18(16)32-6-2)33(30,31)28-12-10-26(3)11-13-28/h8-9,14H,5-7,10-13H2,1-4H3,(H,23,24,29) 
Key:BNRNXUUZRGQAQC-UHFFFAOYSA-N 
 (what is this?) (verify)
Common side effects include headaches and heartburn, as well as flushed skin. Caution is advised in those who have cardiovascular disease. Rare but serious side effects include prolonged erections, which can lead to damage to the penis, and sudden-onset hearing loss. Sildenafil should not be taken by people who take nitrates such as nitroglycerin (glycerin trinitrate), as this may result in a severe and potentially fatal drop in blood pressure.[3]

Sildenafil acts by inhibiting cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (phosphodiesterase 5, PDE5), an enzyme that promotes degradation of cGMP, which regulates blood flow in the penis.

Pfizer scientists Andrew Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Terrett originally discovered sildenafil as a treatment for various cardiovascular disorders.[4][5] Since becoming available in 1998, sildenafil has been a common treatment for erectile dysfunction; its primary competitors are tadalafil (trade name Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra).

Medical uses


Four 100 mg diamond-shaped tablets of branded Viagra
Sexual dysfunction
The primary indication of sildenafil is treatment of erectile dysfunction (inability to sustain a satisfactory erection to complete intercourse). Its use is now one of the standard treatments for erectile dysfunction, including for men with diabetes mellitus.[6]

Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction
Tentative evidence suggests that sildenafil may help men who experience antidepressant-induced erectile dysfunction.[7]

Pulmonary hypertension
While sildenafil improves some markers of disease in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension, it does not appear to affect the risk of death or serious side effects as of 2014.[8]

Altitude sickness
Sildenafil appears to improve some risk factors for high-altitude pulmonary edema but it is unclear whether or not it affects the rate of the condition itself as of 2008.[9]

Raynaud’s phenomenon
Sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors have moderate efficacy for treating secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon.[10][11]

Adverse effects

In clinical trials, the most common adverse effects of sildenafil use included headache, flushing, indigestion, nasal congestion, and impaired vision, including photophobia and blurred vision.[2] Some sildenafil users have complained of seeing everything tinted blue (cyanopsia).[12] Some complained of blurriness and loss of peripheral vision. In July 2005, the FDA found that sildenafil could lead to vision impairment in rare cases[13] and a number of studies have linked sildenafil use with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.[14]

Rare but serious adverse effects found through postmarketing surveillance include prolonged erections, severe low blood pressure, myocardial infarction (heart attack), ventricular arrhythmias, stroke, increased intraocular pressure, and sudden hearing loss.[2] In October 2007, the FDA announced that the labeling for all PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, required a more prominent warning of the potential risk of sudden hearing loss.[15]

Interactions
Care should be exercised by people who are also taking protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection. Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of sildenafil, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of sildenafil, increasing the incidence and severity of side effects. Those using protease inhibitors are recommended to limit their use of sildenafil to no more than one 25 mg dose every 48 hours.[2] Other drugs that interfere with the metabolism of sildenafil include erythromycin and cimetidine, both of which can also lead to prolonged plasma half-life levels.

The use of sildenafil and an α1 blocker (typically prescribed for hypertension or for urologic conditions, such as benign prostatic hypertrophy) at the same time may lead to low blood pressure, but this effect does not occur if they are taken at least 4 hours apart.[16]

Contraindications
Contraindications include:[2]:11

Concomitant use of nitric oxide donors, organic nitrites and nitrates,[17] such as:
nitroglycerin
isosorbide mononitrate
isosorbide dinitrate
sodium nitroprusside
alkyl nitrites (commonly known as “poppers”)
Concomitant use of soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulators, such as riociguat
Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil
Sildenafil should not be used if sexual activity is inadvisable due to underlying cardiovascular risk factors (such as recent heart surgery, stroke or heart attack, etc.).

Nonmedical use

Recreational use
Sildenafil’s popularity with young adults has increased over the years.[18] Sildenafil’s trade name, Viagra, is widely recognized in popular culture, and the drug’s association with treating erectile dysfunction has led to its recreational use.[19] The reasons behind such use include the belief that the drug increases libido, improves sexual performance,[19] or permanently increases penis size.[20] Studies on the effects of viagra when used recreationally are limited, but suggest it has little effect when used by those not suffering from erectile dysfunction. In one study, a 25-mg dose was shown to cause no significant change in erectile quality, but did reduce the postejaculatory refractory time.[21] This study also noted a significant placebo effect in the control group.[21]

Unprescribed recreational use of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors is noted as particularly high among users of illegal drugs.[22] Sildenafil is sometimes used to counteract the effects of other substances, often illicit.[19] Some users mix it with methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), other stimulants, or opiates in an attempt to compensate for the common side effect of erectile dysfunction, a combination known as “sextasy”, “rockin’ and rollin'” or “trail mix”.[19] Mixing with amyl nitrite is particularly dangerous and potentially fatal.[19]

Jet lag research
The 2007 Ig Nobel Prize in Aviation went to Patricia V. Agostino, Santiago A. Plano, and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, for their discovery that sildenafil helps treat jet lag recovery in hamsters.[23][24]

Sports
Professional athletes have been documented using sildenafil, believing the opening of their blood vessels will enrich their muscles. In turn, they believe it will enhance their performances.[25][26]

Analogs
Acetildenafil and other synthetic structural analogs of sildenafil which are PDE5 inhibitors have been found as adulterants in a number of “herbal” aphrodisiac products sold over-the-counter.[27] These analogs have not undergone any of the rigorous testing that drugs like sildenafil have passed, and thus have unknown side-effect profiles.[28] Some attempts have been made to ban these drugs, but progress has been slow so far, as, even in those jurisdictions that have laws targeting designer drugs, the laws are drafted to ban analogs of illegal drugs of abuse, rather than analogs of prescription medicines. However, at least one court case has resulted in a product being taken off the market.[29]

The US FDA has banned numerous products claiming to be Eurycoma longifolia that, in fact, contain only analogs of sildenafil.[30][31][32] Sellers of such fake herbals typically respond by just changing the names of their products.

Detection in biological fluids

Sildenafil and/or N-desmethylsildenafil, its major active metabolite, may be quantified in plasma, serum, or whole blood to assess pharmacokinetic status in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdose.[33]

Mechanism of action


Crystal structure of human PDE5 with bound sildenafil, PDB entry 1udt[34]
Sildenafil protects cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from degradation by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the corpus cavernosum. Nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum of the penis binds to guanylate cyclase receptors, which results in increased levels of cGMP, leading to smooth muscle relaxation (vasodilation) of the intimal cushions of the helicine arteries. This smooth muscle relaxation leads to vasodilation and increased inflow of blood into the spongy tissue of the penis, causing an erection.[35] Robert F. Furchgott, Ferid Murad, and Louis Ignarro won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1998 for their independent study of the metabolic pathway of nitric oxide in smooth muscle vasodilation.

Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which is responsible for degradation of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. The molecular structure of sildenafil is similar to that of cGMP and acts as a competitive binding agent of PDE5 in the corpus cavernosum, resulting in more cGMP and better erections.[35] Without sexual stimulation, and therefore lack of activation of the NO/cGMP system, sildenafil should not cause an erection. Other drugs that operate by the same mechanism include tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra).

Sildenafil is broken down in the liver by hepatic metabolism using cytochrome p450 enzymes, mainly CYP450 3A4(major route), but also by CYP2C9 (minor route) hepatic isoenzymes. The major product of metabolisation by these enzymes is N-desmethylated sildenafil, which is metabolised further. This metabolite also has an affinity for the PDE receptors, about 40% of that of sildenafil. Thus, the metabolite is responsible for about 20% of sildenafil’s action. Sildenafil is excreted as metabolites predominantly in the feces (about 80% of administered oral dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (around 13% of the administered oral dose). If taken with a high-fat meal, absorption is reduced; the time taken to reach the maximum plasma concentration increases by around one hour, and the maximum concentration itself is decreased by nearly one-third.[36]

Route of administration

When taken by mouth sildenafil for erectile dysfunction results in an average time to onset of erections of 27 minutes (ranging from 12 to 70 minutes).[37]
Under the tongue use of sildenafil for erectile dysfunction results in an average onset of action of 15 minutes and lasting for an average of 40 minutes.[38]
There are also mouth spray preparations of sildenafil for faster onset of action.

Chemical synthesis

The preparation steps for synthesis of sildenafil are:[39]

Methylation of 3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester with hot dimethyl sulfate
Hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to free acid
Nitration with oleum/fuming nitric acid
Carboxamide formation with refluxing thionyl chloride/NH4OH
Reduction of nitro group to amino group
Acylation with 2-ethoxybenzoyl chloride
Cyclization
Sulfonation to the chlorosulfonyl derivative
Condensation with 1-methylpiperazine.
History

Sildenafil (compound UK-92,480) was synthesized by a group of pharmaceutical chemists working at Pfizer’s Sandwich, Kent, research facility in England. It was initially studied for use in hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (a symptom of ischaemic heart disease). The first clinical trials were conducted in Morriston Hospital in Swansea.[40] Phase I clinical trials under the direction of Ian Osterloh suggested the drug had little effect on angina, but it could induce marked penile erections.[41][42] Pfizer therefore decided to market it for erectile dysfunction, rather than for angina; this decision became an often-cited example of drug repositioning.[43][44] The drug was patented in 1996, approved for use in erectile dysfunction by the FDA on March 27, 1998, becoming the first oral treatment approved to treat erectile dysfunction in the United States, and offered for sale in the United States later that year.[45] It soon became a great success: annual sales of Viagra peaked in 2008 at US$1.934 billion.[46]

The British press portrayed Peter Dunn and Albert Wood as the inventors of the drug, but only Andrew Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Terrett are listed on the original composition of matter patent.[4]

Society and culture

Marketing and sales

Bulk bag of counterfeit Viagra
In the US even though sildenafil is available only by prescription from a doctor, it was advertised directly to consumers on TV (famously being endorsed by former United States Senator Bob Dole and football star Pelé). Numerous sites on the Internet offer Viagra for sale after an “online consultation”, often a simple web questionnaire.[47][48] The Viagra name has become so well known, many fake aphrodisiacs now call themselves “herbal viagra” or are presented as blue tablets imitating the shape and colour of Pfizer’s product. Viagra is also informally known as “vitamin V”, “the blue pill”, or “blue diamond”, as well as various other nicknames.

In 2000, Viagra sales accounted for 92% of the global market for prescribed erectile dysfunction pills.[49] By 2007, Viagra’s global share had plunged to about 50%[50] due to several factors, including the entry of Cialis and Levitra, along with several counterfeits and clones, and reports of vision loss in people taking PDE5 inhibitors.[51][52]

In February 2007, it was announced that Boots, the UK pharmacy chain, would try over-the-counter sales of Viagra in stores in Manchester, England. Men between the ages of 30 and 65 would be eligible to buy four tablets after a consultation with a pharmacist.[53]

On May 6, 2013, Pfizer, which manufactures Viagra, told the Associated Press they will begin selling the drug directly to patients on its website.[54]

Counterfeits
Further information: Counterfeit medications
Counterfeit Viagra, despite generally being cheaper,[55] can contain harmful substances or substances that affect how Viagra works, such as blue printer ink, amphetamines, metronidazole, boric acid, and rat poison,[56] as well as talcum powder and commercial paint.[57]

Viagra is one of the world’s most counterfeited medicines.[58][59] According to a Pfizer study, around 80% of sites claiming to sell Viagra were selling counterfeits.[56]

Regional issues
European Union
Pfizer’s patent on sildenafil citrate expired in some member countries of the EU, Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Switzerland on 21 June 2013.[60][61][62] A UK patent held by Pfizer on the use of PDE5 inhibitors (see below) as treatment of impotence was invalidated in 2000 because of obviousness; this decision was upheld on appeal in 2002.[63][64]

United States
Sildenafil is available as a generic drug in the United States.[65] As of 2016 branded pills cost about 50 times more than generic ones.[65] In the United States as of 2015 the branded 50 mg pill cost is between 25.17 and 37.88 USD.[66]

In the United States, Pfizer received two patents for sildenafil: one for its indication to treat cardiovascular disease (marketed as Revatio) and another for its indication to treat erectile dysfunction (marketed as Viagra). The substance is the same under both trade names.[65]

In 1992, Pfizer filed a patent covering the substance sildenafil and its use to treat cardiovascular diseases.[67] This would be marketed as Revatio. The patent was published in 1993 and expired in 2012. The patent on Revatio (indicated for pulmonary arterial hypertension rather than erectile dysfunction) expired in late 2012. Generic versions of this low-dose form of sildenafil have been available in the U.S. from a number of manufacturers, including Greenstone, Mylan, and Watson, since early 2013.[68] Health care providers may prescribe generic sildenafil for erectile dysfunction.[65] However, the generic is not available in the same dosages as branded Viagra, so using dosages typically required for treating ED requires patients to take multiple pills.[65]

In 1994, Pfizer filed a patent covering the use of sildenafil to treat erectile dysfunction.[69] This would be marketed as Viagra. This patent was published in 2002 and will expire in 2019. Teva sued to have the latter patent invalidated, but Pfizer prevailed in an August 2011 federal district court case.[70] In an agreement with Pfizer, Teva will begin to provide the generic drug in 2017.[65]

Canada
In Canada, Pfizer’s patent 2,324,324 for Revatio (sildenafil used to treat pulmonary hypertension) was found invalid by the Federal Court in June 2010, on an application by Ratiopharm Inc.[71][72]

On November 8, 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Pfizer’s patent 2,163,446 on Viagra was invalid from the beginning because the company did not provide full disclosure in its application. The decision, Teva Canada Ltd. v. Pfizer Canada Inc., pointed to section 27(3)(b) of The Patent Act which requires that disclosure must include sufficient information “to enable any person skilled in the art or science to which it pertains” to produce it. It added further: “As a matter of policy and sound statutory interpretation, patentees cannot be allowed to ‘game’ the system in this way. This, in my view, is the key issue in this appeal.”[73]

Teva Canada launched Novo-Sildenafil, a generic version of Viagra, on the day the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision.[74][75][76] To remain competitive, Pfizer then reduced the price of Viagra in Canada.[77] However, on November 9, 2012, Pfizer filed a motion for a re-hearing of the appeal in the Supreme Court of Canada,[78] on the grounds that the court accidentally exceeded its jurisdiction by voiding the patent.[79] Finally, on April 22, 2013, the Supreme Court of Canada invalidated Pfizer’s patent altogether.[80]

India
Manufacture and sale of sildenafil citrate drugs known as “generic Viagra” is common in India, where Pfizer’s patent claim does not apply. Trade names include Kamagra (Ajanta Pharma), Silagra (Cipla), Edegra (Sun Pharmaceutical), Penegra (Zydus Cadila), and Zenegra (Alkem Laboratories).

China
Manufacture and sale of sildenafil citrate drugs is common in China, where Pfizer’s patent claim is not widely enforced.

Other countries
Egypt approved Viagra for sale in 2002, but soon afterwards allowed local companies to produce generic versions of the drug, citing the interests of poor people who would not be able to afford Pfizer’s price.[81]

Pfizer’s patent on sildenafil citrate expired in Brazil in 2010.[82]

References

External links

Last edited 8 days ago by Hunc
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Amazing! Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s face printed on Sweden’s official currency (photo)

Amazing! Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s face printed on Sweden’s official currency (photo): https://y25n4.app.goo.gl/?link=https://sports.naij.com/1117132-zlatan-ibrahimovics-face-printed-1000-swedish-krona-note.html&apn=com.naij.android&ibi=com.tutby.news.nigeria&isi=830240306&ius=naij.ios

World’s most identical twins reveal their plans to have babies with their mutual boyfriend

World’s most identical twins reveal their plans to have babies with their mutual boyfriend: https://y25n4.app.goo.gl/?link=https://gossip.naij.com/1117141-worlds-identical-twins-reveal-plans-babies-mutual-boyfriend.html&apn=com.naij.android&ibi=com.tutby.news.nigeria&isi=830240306&ius=naij.ios

Boy, 10, who weighs 90kg battles rare condition that makes him constantly hungry

Boy, 10, who weighs 90kg battles rare condition that makes him constantly hungry: https://y25n4.app.goo.gl/?link=https://gossip.naij.com/1117149-boy-10-weighs-90kg-battles-rare-condition-constantly-hungry.html&apn=com.naij.android&ibi=com.tutby.news.nigeria&isi=830240306&ius=naij.ios