Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formulaC

2H
5
OH
. Its formula can be written also as CH
3
CH
2
OH or C
2
H
5
OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is a volatileflammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks.

Ethanol

Full structural formula of ethanol

Skeletal formula of ethanol

Ball-and-stick model of ethanol

Space-filling model of ethanol

Names
Pronunciation /ˈɛθənɒl/
Systematic IUPAC name

ethanol[1]

Other names

Absolute alcohol, alcohol, cologne spirit, drinking alcohol, ethylic alcohol, EtOH, ethyl alcohol, ethyl hydrate, ethyl hydroxide, ethylol, grain alcohol, hydroxyethane, methylcarbinol

Properties

Chemical formula

C2H6O
Molar mass 46.07 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[2]
Melting point −114.14 ± 0.03[2] °C (−173.45 ± 0.05 °F; 159.01 ± 0.03 K)
Boiling point 78.24 ± 0.09[2] °C (172.83 ± 0.16 °F; 351.39 ± 0.09 K)

Solubility in water

miscible
log P −0.18
Vapor pressure 5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)[3][4]

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−33.60·10−6cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)

1.3611[2]
Viscosity 1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[5]

Dipole moment

1.69 D[6]
Identifiers

CAS Number

3D model (JSmol)

Beilstein Reference

1718733
ChEBI

ChemSpider

DrugBank

ECHA InfoCard 100.000.526
E number E1510 (additional chemicals)

Gmelin Reference

787

IUPHAR/BPS

PubChem CID

UNII

Related compounds

Related compounds

Ethane
Methanol
Supplementary data page

Structure and
properties

Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.

Thermodynamic
data

Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas

Spectral data

UVIRNMRMS

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

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Infobox references

Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemicalsolvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries. Ethanol is also used as a clean-burning fuel source