Archaeologists Discover Paintings of Goddess in 3,000-Year-Old Mummy’s Coffin
Researchers lifted the ancient Egyptian mummy out of her coffin for the first time in 100 years and, to their surprise, uncovered the ancient artworks
Ta-Kr-Hb was likely an ancient Egyptian princess or priestess. (Culture Perth & Kinross)
By Nora McGreevy
APRIL 7, 2020
If you think you haven’t been moving around much lately, consider Ta-Kr-Hb: Until last month, the ancient woman had lain undisturbed in her coffin for more than 100 years. So, when conservators at the Perth Museum and Art Gallery in Scotland lifted the mummy out of her coffin for preservation efforts, they encountered a surprise. Unbeknownst to her caretakers, the 3,000-year-old Egyptian had spent decades resting atop extraordinary painted figures.
The Scottish museum announced its discovery in a statement last month. Conservators have been working to restore the mummy as part of the museum’s “Conservation in Action: Saving the Perth Mummy” exhibition. They plan to display Ta-Kr-Hb at the redeveloped City Hall Museum in 2022.
The two newly discovered paintings line the internal and external bases of the coffin’s lower section, or trough. Of the pair, the best-preserved image is that of Egyptian goddess Amentet or Imentet, also known as “She of the West,” who is seen wearing a red dress. The figure has ribbons draped around her arms and is depicted in profile, with her head facing to the right. The goddess stands on a platform and supporting pole—a pose that has led researchers to suspect the painting is based on a statue, reports Alan Young for the Scotsman.
“We had never had a reason to lift the whole thing so high that we could see the underneath of the trough and had never lifted the mummy out before and didn’t expect to see anything there,” Mark Hall, collections officer at Perth Museum and Art Gallery, tells Young. “So, to get a painting on both surfaces is a real bonus and gives us something extra special to share with visitors.”
Interior of Ta-Kr-Hb’s coffin, featuring previously unknown artwork (Culture Perth & Kinross)
The practice of mummification likely began in ancient Egypt around 2600 B.C. It was an expensive process, meaning that pharaohs, officials and nobility were the most likely members of society to be mummified.
A 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Manchester’s KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology suggested Ta-Kr-Hb was a priestess or princess from Thebes who died during Egypt’s 25th dynasty, which lasted from 747 to 656 B.C.
Per the paper, a man named William Bailey purchased the mummy from a curator at a government museum in Cairo toward the end of the 19th century. In 1896, Bailey donated Ta-Kr-Hb’s remains to the Alloa Society of Natural Science and Archaeology, which, in turn, gifted the mummy and coffin to the Perth Museum in 1936. Ta-Kr-Hb has resided there ever since, according to BBC News.
In a joint statement, conservators Helena and Richard Jaeschke note that the mummy’s past encounters with grave robbers have left it in a very fragile state.
“Although both the mummy and the coffin have suffered badly during the centuries in the tomb, from grave-robbers searching for amulets to flash floods that washed mud and debris onto the painted coffin, they have survived remarkably well,” the conservators add, “and [will] need careful, patient conservation treatment to enable them to survive for many more years.”
Like this article?
SIGN UP for our newsletter
About Nora McGreevy
Nora McGreevy is a freelance journalist based in South Bend, Indiana. Her work has appeared in Wired, Washingtonian, the Boston Globe, South Bend Tribune, the New York Times and more. She can be reached through her website, noramcgreevy.com.
Read more from this author | Follow @mcgreevynora
Ancient Civilizations Ancient Egypt Archaeology Art Cool Finds Death Mummies Religious History
Around the WebSponsored by ZergNet
Odd Things That Have Finally Become Clear About Joan of Arc
Disturbing Things That Happened in Ancient Mesopotamia
Never Ever Drain Pasta in the Sink. Here’s Why
The Surprising Truth About Blue Eyes Revealed
NASA Astronaut Accused of Committing First-Ever ‘Space Crime’
What Nobody Told You About the Ark of the Covenant
COMMENT ON THIS STORY
Archaeologists Discover Paintings of Goddess in 3,000-Year-Old Mummy’s Coffin
Fishing Has Stopped. Will Fish Recover?
Watch Live as the National Zoo’s Cheetah Gives Birth to a Litter of Cubs
Newly Discovered Portrait Depicts Woman Who May Have Inspired Jane Austen Character
A Comet May Have Destroyed This Paleolithic Village 12,800 Years Ago
How Advertisers Convinced Americans They Smelled Bad
The Plague Has Been Quietly Killing Yellowstone Cougars for a Decade
Can You Become Immune to Coronavirus?
How to Make Your Own COVID-19 Mask
How—and When—Will the COVID-19 Pandemic End?
Ten Surprising Facts About Everyday Household Objects
How Do COVID-19 Tests Work
Quarantined Couple Builds Art Museum to Entertain Pet Gerbils
Original Drawings for Statue of Liberty Found
How the Horrific 1918 Flu Spread Across America
Save 84% off the newsstand price!
Last NameFirst Name
Enter your email address
CONTINUE or Give a Gift
Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. Keep up-to-date on:
Enter your email address
SMARTNEWS HISTORY SCIENCE INGENUITY ARTS & CULTURE TRAVEL AT THE SMITHSONIAN PHOTOS VIDEO GAMES
ABOUTCONTACTADVERTISINGSUSTAINABILITYSUBSCRIBE RSSMEMBER SERVICES
Ernesto “Che” Guevara (/tʃeɪ ɡəˈvɑːrə/ (CHAY gə-VAH-rə);Spanish: [ˈtʃe ɣeˈβaɾa] 14 June 1928 – 9 October 1967) was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture.
Picture taken by Alberto Korda on 5 March 1960, at the La Coubre memorial service
14 June 1928
Rosario, Santa Fe province, Argentina
9 October 1967 (aged 39)
La Higuera, Vallegrande, Bolivia
Cause of death
Execution by shooting
Che Guevara Mausoleum
Santa Clara, Cuba
University of Buenos Aires
Physician, author, guerrilla, government official
26th of July Movement, United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, National Liberation Army (Bolivia)
(m. 1955; div. 1959)
Aleida March (m. 1959)
Aleida (born 1960)
Camilo (born 1962)
Celia (born 1963)
Ernesto (born 1965)
Ernesto Guevara Lynch
Celia de la Serna y Llosa
As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout South America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger and disease he witnessed. His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala’s social reforms under President Jacobo Árbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara’s political ideology. Later in Mexico City, Guevara met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second in command and played a pivotal role in the victorious two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime.
Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, instituting agrarian land reform as minister of industries, helping spearhead a successful nationwide literacy campaign, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba’s armed forces, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such positions also allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and bringing Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to Cuba, which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Additionally, Guevara was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful continental motorcycle journey. His experiences and studying of Marxism–Leninism led him to posit that the Third World’s underdevelopment and dependence was an intrinsic result of imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism, with the only remedy being proletarian internationalism and world revolution. Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to foment revolution abroad, first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and summarily executed.
Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure, polarized in the collective imagination in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, essays, documentaries, songs, and films. As a result of his perceived martyrdom, poetic invocations for class struggle and desire to create the consciousness of a “new man” driven by moral rather than material incentives, Guevara has evolved into a quintessential icon of various leftist movements. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, while an Alberto Korda photograph of him, titled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was cited by the Maryland Institute College of Art as “the most famous photograph in the world”.
A teenage Ernesto (left) with his parents and siblings, c. 1944, seated beside him from left to right: Celia (mother), Celia (sister), Roberto, Juan Martín, Ernesto (father) and Ana María
Ernesto Guevara was born to Ernesto Guevara Lynch and Celia de la Serna y Llosa, on 14 June 1928, in Rosario, Argentina, according to his birth certificate, but, according to biographer Jon Lee Anderson’s book Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, Che’s mother confided to an astrologer friend that he was actually born on 14 May 1928. The deception was made to avoid the scandal of having been already three months pregnant before marriage.
He is the eldest of five children in a middle-class Argentine family of Spanish (including Basque and Cantabrian) descent, as well as Irish by means of his patrilineal ancestor Patrick Lynch. In accordance with the flexibility allowed in Spanish naming customs, his legal name (Ernesto Guevara) will sometimes appear with “de la Serna” and/or “Lynch” accompanying it. Referring to Che’s “restless” nature, his father declared “the first thing to note is that in my son’s veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels”.
Very early on in life, Ernestito (as he was then called) developed an “affinity for the poor”. Growing up in a family with leftist leanings, Guevara was introduced to a wide spectrum of political perspectives even as a boy. His father, a staunch supporter of Republicans from the Spanish Civil War, often hosted many veterans from the conflict in the Guevara home.
Despite suffering crippling bouts of acute asthma that were to afflict him throughout his life, he excelled as an athlete, enjoying swimming, football, golf, and shooting, while also becoming an “untiring” cyclist. He was an avid rugby union player, and played at fly-half for Club Universitario de Buenos Aires. His rugby playing earned him the nickname “Fuser”—a contraction of El Furibundo (raging) and his mother’s surname, de la Serna—for his aggressive style of play.
Intellectual and literary interests
22-year-old Guevara in 1951
Guevara learned chess from his father, and began participating in local tournaments by the age of 12. During adolescence and throughout his life he was passionate about poetry, especially that of Pablo Neruda, John Keats, Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Gabriela Mistral, César Vallejo, and Walt Whitman. He could also recite Rudyard Kipling’s “If—” and José Hernández’s Martín Fierro by heart. The Guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, which allowed Guevara to be an enthusiastic and eclectic reader, with interests including Karl Marx, William Faulkner, André Gide, Emilio Salgari and Jules Verne. Additionally, he enjoyed the works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Vladimir Lenin and Jean-Paul Sartre; as well as Anatole France, Friedrich Engels, H. G. Wells and Robert Frost.
As he grew older, he developed an interest in the Latin American writers Horacio Quiroga, Ciro Alegría, Jorge Icaza, Rubén Darío and Miguel Asturias. Many of these authors’ ideas he cataloged in his own handwritten notebooks of concepts, definitions, and philosophies of influential intellectuals. These included composing analytical sketches of Buddha and Aristotle, along with examining Bertrand Russell on love and patriotism, Jack London on society and Nietzsche on the idea of death. Sigmund Freud’s ideas fascinated him as he quoted him on a variety of topics from dreams and libido to narcissism and the Oedipus complex. His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, sociology, history and archaeology.
Years later, a declassified CIA ‘biographical and personality report’ dated 13 February 1958 made note of Guevara’s wide range of academic interests and intellect, describing him as “quite well read” while adding that “Che is fairly intellectual for a Latino.”
Main articles: The Motorcycle Diaries (book) and The Motorcycle Diaries (film)
Guevara (right) with Alberto Granado (left) in June 1952 on the Amazon River aboard their “Mambo-Tango” wooden raft, which was a gift from the lepers whom they had treated
In 1948, Guevara entered the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine. His “hunger to explore the world” led him to intersperse his collegiate pursuits with two long introspective journeys that fundamentally changed the way he viewed himself and the contemporary economic conditions in Latin America. The first expedition in 1950 was a 4,500-kilometer (2,800 mi) solo trip through the rural provinces of northern Argentina on a bicycle on which he installed a small engine. This was followed in 1951 by a nine-month, 8,000-kilometer (5,000 mi) continental motorcycle trek through part of South America. For the latter, he took a year off from his studies to embark with his friend Alberto Granado, with the final goal of spending a few weeks volunteering at the San Pablo leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon River.
A map of Guevara’s 1952 trip with Alberto Granado (the red arrows correspond to air travel)
In Chile, Guevara found himself enraged by the working conditions of the miners in Anaconda’s Chuquicamata copper mine and moved by his overnight encounter in the Atacama Desert with a persecuted communist couple who did not even own a blanket, describing them as “the shivering flesh-and-blood victims of capitalist exploitation”. Additionally, on the way to Machu Picchu high in the Andes, he was struck by the crushing poverty of the remote rural areas, where peasant farmers worked small plots of land owned by wealthy landlords. Later on his journey, Guevara was especially impressed by the camaraderie among those living in a leper colony, stating, “The highest forms of human solidarity and loyalty arise among such lonely and desperate people.” Guevara used notes taken during this trip to write an account, titled The Motorcycle Diaries, which later became a New York Times best-seller, and was adapted into a 2004 award-winning film of the same name.
A motorcycle journey the length of South America awakened him to the injustice of US domination in the hemisphere, and to the suffering colonialism brought to its original inhabitants.
—George Galloway, British politician
The journey took Guevara through Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and Miami, Florida, for 20 days, before returning home to Buenos Aires. By the end of the trip, he came to view Latin America not as collection of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide liberation strategy. His conception of a borderless, united Hispanic America sharing a common Latino heritage was a theme that recurred prominently during his later revolutionary activities. Upon returning to Argentina, he completed his studies and received his medical degree in June 1953, making him officially “Dr. Ernesto Guevara”.
Guevara later remarked that through his travels in Latin America, he came in “close contact with poverty, hunger and disease” along with the “inability to treat a child because of lack of money” and “stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment” that leads a father to “accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident”. Guevara cited these experiences as convincing him that in order to “help these people”, he needed to leave the realm of medicine and consider the political arena of armed struggle.
Guatemala, Árbenz, and United Fruit
Mexico City and preparation
Post-execution and memorial
List of English-language works
Last edited 3 days ago by Matt Campbell
1969 film by Richard Fleischer
Che Guevara Mausoleum
National monument, memorial and museum in Santa Clara, Cuba
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
In 1896, Thomas Edison, the great inventor who invented the electric bulb, was working on an idea to design a car when he heard that a young man who worked in his company had created an experimental car.
Edison met the youngman at his company’s party in New York and interviewed him about the car. He was impressed! He had the same idea as the young man but he was considering electricity as the power source while the young man used a gasoline engine to power the car. He slammed his fist down and shouted “young man, that’s the thing! You have it! … I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!” With these words of encouragement from the most highly respected inventor in the United States at that time, HENRY Ford continued his work, invented a car and became wealthy.
On december 9, 1914, Thomas Edison’s laboratory and factory got burnt. He was 67years old and the damage was too extensive for insurance cover. Before the ashes were cold, Henry Ford handed Edison a cheque of $750,000 with a note saying that Edison could have more if he needed it!
In 1916, Henry Ford relocated his home to the building next to Edison’s home and when Edison couldn’t walk and was confined to a wheelchair by his doctors, Henry Ford also bought himself a wheelchair so that he could run wheelchair races with his friend and mentor!
Thomas Edison made Henry Ford believe in himself and got a friend for life!
Don’t ever be jealous of other people’s success. If you can’t win a race, help the person in front of you to break the record!
Putting out the candle light of your neighbour in the dark will never increase the brightness of yours. Your candle will not lose its light when it lights up another candle!Getting the job done is more important than who gets the glory.
This article is for you and me! Yes, you and me!
Be inspired, speak positively into someone’s life today, and possibly save a soul.
Kimberly “Kim” Kardashiana t (born Kimberly Noel Kardashian; Armenian: Գարտաշեան, October 21, 1980) is an American reality television personality, socialite, actress, businesswoman and model. Kardashian first gained media attention as a friend and stylist of Paris Hilton, but received wider notice after a 2003 sex tape with her former boyfriend Ray J was leaked in 2007. Later that year, she and her family began to appear in the E! reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians. Its success soon led to the creation of spin-offs including Kourtney and Kim Take New York and Kourtney and Khloé Take Miami in addition to various business ventures. Kardashian’s personal life soon became subject to widespread media attention.
In recent years, Kardashian has grown an influential online and social media presence, including tens of millions of followers on Twitter and Instagram. She has released a variety of products tied to her name, including the successful 2014 mobile game Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, a variety of clothing and products, and the 2015 photo book Selfish. Her relationship with rapper Kanye West has also received significant media coverage; the couple married in 2014 and they have two children together.
Time magazine included Kardashian on their list of 2015’s 100 most influential people, while Vogue described her in 2016 as a “pop culture phenomenon.” Critics and admirers have described her as exemplifying the notion of being famous for being famous. She was reported to be the highest-paid reality television personality of 2015, with her total earnings exceeding US$53 million.
Kardashian was born on October 21, 1980 in Los Angeles, California, to parents Robert and Kris (née Houghton). She has an older sister Kourtney, a younger sister Khloé, and a younger brother Rob. Their mother is of Dutch, English, Irish and Scottish ancestry, while their father was a third-generation Armenian American. After their parents divorced in 1991, her mother married again that year, to Caitlyn Jenner (then Bruce[A]), the 1976 Summer Olympics decathlon winner. Through their marriage, Kardashian gained step-brothers Burton “Burt”, Brandon, and Brody; step-sister Casey; and half-sisters Kendall and Kylie Jenner.
As a teenager, she attended Marymount High School, a Roman Catholic all-girls school in Los Angeles. In 1994, her father represented football player O. J. Simpson during his murder trial. Simpson is Kim Kardashian’s godfather. Kim’s father died in 2003 of cancer. In her 20s, Kardashian was the close friend and stylist of socialite Paris Hilton, through whom she first garnered media attention.
2007–09: Breakthrough with reality television
Kardashian in 2007
In February 2007, a sex tape made by Kardashian and Ray J in 2003 was leaked. Kardashian filed a lawsuit against Vivid Entertainment, who distributed the film as Kim K Superstar. She later dropped the suit and settled for a reported US$5 million.
In October 2007 Kardashian, in addition to her mother Kris Jenner, her step-parent Caitlyn Jenner (then known as Bruce), her siblings Kourtney, Khloé, and Rob Kardashian, and half-sisters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, began to appear in the reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians. The series proved successful for E!, and has led to the creations of spin-offs including Kourtney and Kim Take New York and Kourtney and Kim Take Miami. In one of the episode, Kim discussed an offer from Playboy to appear nude in the magazine. That December, Kardashian posed for a nude pictorial for Playboy.
In 2008, she made her feature film debut in the disaster film spoof Disaster Movie, in which she appeared as a character named Lisa. That same year, she was a participant on season seven of Dancing with the Stars, where she was partnered with Mark Ballas. Kardashian was the third contestant to be eliminated.
In January 2009, Kardashian made a cameo appearance during an episode of the sitcom How I Met Your Mother, in the episode “Benefits”. In April, she released a workout DVD series through her television production company Kimsaprincess Productions, LLC which has seen the release of three successful workout videos, Fit in Your Jeans by Friday, with trainers Jennifer Galardi and Patrick Goudeau. Kardashian played Elle in four episodes of the television series Beyond the Break.
Kardashian become a guest host of WrestleMania XXIV and guest judge on America’s Next Top Model in August of that year. In September, Fusion Beauty and Seven Bar Foundation launched “Kiss Away Poverty”, with Kardashian as the face of the campaign. For every LipFusion lipgloss sold, US$1 went to the Foundation to fund women entrepreneurs in the US. The following month, she released her first fragrance self-titled “Kim Kardashian”. In December 2009, Kardashian made a guest star appearance on CBS’s CSI: NY with Vanessa Minnillo.
2010: Early endorsements and retail ventures
2010 saw Kardashian venture into several new endorsement deals, including endorsing various food products for Carl’s Jr. In January 2010, she starred as Summa Eve in the film Deep in the Valley. In April, Kardashian sparked controversy over the way she held a kitten for a photograph, holding it by the scruff of its neck. With sisters Kourtney and Khloé, Kardashian is involved in the retail and fashion industries. They have launched several clothing collections and fragrances. Animal rights organization PETA criticized Kardashian for repeatedly wearing fur coats, and named her as one of the five worst people or organizations of 2010 when it came to animal welfare. June saw Kardashian guest star with Khloé and Kourtney as themselves on the season three premiere episode of the series 90210.
Kardashian backstage at The Heart Truth’s Red Dress Collection, February 2010
That same month, Kardashian was involved in a lawsuit against one of her endorsements. Sanford Siegal, the creator of the Cookie Diet, sued Kardashian, claiming she defamed him on Twitter. According to Siegal, Kardashian tweeted in October 2009 that he was “falsely promoting” that she was on the cookie diet. Siegal filed a claim in a Florida state court charging that her statements were false and defamatory. He also alleged that Kardashian was on QuickTrim’s payroll when she posted the tweet. Kardashian’s tweet appears to stem from an article on CookieDiet.com, that named Kardashian as one of many celebrities who saw positive results on the diet. Kardashian sent a cease-and-desist order to Siegal, demanding the link be removed.
On July 1, 2010, the New York City branch of Madame Tussauds revealed a wax figure of Kardashian. In November, Kardashian served as producer for The Spin Crowd, a reality television show about Command PR, a New York City public relations firm, run by Jonathan Cheban and Simon Huck. The show followed them as they settle into their new offices in Los Angeles. That month, she also appeared on season ten of The Apprentice. Kim, Kourtney, and Khloé wrote an autobiography titled Kardashian Konfidential, which was released in stores on November 23, and appeared on New York Times’s Best Seller List.
In December 2010, Kardashian filmed a music video for a song titled “Jam (Turn It Up)”. The video was directed by Hype Williams; Kanye West makes a cameo in the video. Kardashian premiered the song during a New Year’s Eve party at TAO Las Vegas on December 31, 2010. The song was produced by The-Dream and Tricky Stewart. When asked if an album was in the works, Kardashian replied, “There’s no album in the works or anything—just one song we did for Kourtney and Kim Take New York, and a video Hype Williams directed, half of the proceeds we’re giving away to a cancer foundation, because The-Dream’s and one of my parents passed away from cancer. It’s just all having fun—with a good cause”. Jim Farber, writing for the Daily News, called the song a “dead-brained piece of generic dance music, without a single distinguishing feature,” and suggested that the single made Kardashian the “worst singer in the reality TV universe.”
That month, the International Business Times reported that Kardashian’s 2010 earnings were the highest among Hollywood-based reality stars, estimating them at $6 million.
2011–12: Continued career and legal issues
Kardashian in Australia for the E! News: Red carpet and dinner in 2012
In January 2011, Kardashian released her debut song “Jam (Turn It Up)”, which was produced by The-Dream. The music video for the single was directed by Hype Williams. The single sold 14,000 downloads in five days and reached number one on the Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 chart.
In April 2011, Kardashian released her third fragrance “Gold”. Also in 2011, she filed a $20 million lawsuit against Old Navy and its parent company, Gap Inc. for right of publicity. Old Navy used actress/model Melissa Molinaro in their Old Navy commercial featuring the actress singing and dancing. Kim Kardashian claimed that Old Navy used Molinaro as a look alike to Kim in order to promote their brand. Kim Kardashian was also seeking order to have the actress/model Molinaro banned from Old Navy commercials. The lawsuit never went to trial but a settlement was reached by use of a mediator in 2012; the exact settlement is unknown.
In March 2012, Kardashian debuted her fourth fragrance, titled “True Reflection”, which she worked with the company Dress for Success to promote. That month, Kardashian and her sisters were named in a $5 million class action lawsuit against QuickTrim, the weight loss supplement they endorse. The complaint, filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, accuses the Kardashians (along with QuickTrim’s manufacturer, Windmill Health Products; the retailer GNC; and others in the sales and marketing chain) of false and deceptive marketing of the diet aid. The plaintiffs, hailing from several states, brought claims under their respective states’ consumer protection laws. In April, E! renewed Keeping Up with the Kardashians for two additional seasons, in a deal reported to be worth $50 million. In October 2012, Kardashian released her fifth fragrance, “Glam”, which “draws on the glamour of her Hollywood lifestyle”, and was made available through Debenhams.
In summer of 2012, Kardashian and her family filmed a music video in the Dominican Republic to Notorious B.I.G’s song “Hypnotize”.
2013–15: Focus on social media
Kardashian in September 2014
Kardashian appeared on the cover, and in a pictorial in Paper’s winter issue in 2014 photographed by Jean-Paul Goude. On the cover, her nude buttocks are featured above the caption: “Break the Internet”, which generated considerable comment in both social and traditional media. The photos show Kardashian with her hair tied up in a bun, wearing only a pearl necklace, a pair of earrings and black satin gloves, and, on the cover, with her bare back facing the camera, holding a sequined gown below her bare, oiled-up buttocks, while smiling broadly at the camera. A Time magazine writer commented that, unlike previous celebrities’ nudes that represented the women’s rebellion against repressed society and “trying to tear down” barriers, Kardashian’s exhibition was “just provocation and bluster, repeated images that seem to offer us some sort of truth or insight but are really just self serving. We want there to be something more, some reason or context, some great explanation that tells us what it is like to live in this very day and age, but there is not. Kim Kardashian’s ass is nothing but an empty promise.” However, the stunt “set a new benchmark” in social media response, and Paper’s website received 15.9 million views in one day, compared with 25,000 views on an average day.
Kardashian voiced the role of an alien in an episode of the adult animated series American Dad!, in season 11 (2014–15) in the episode titled “Blagsnarst, A Love Story” on September 21, 2014. In the episode, her character crash-lands in the town of Langley Falls. The alien then develops an attraction to her fellow alien Roger.
In June 2014, Kardashian released a mobile game for iPhone and Android called Kim Kardashian: Hollywood. The objective of the game is to become a Hollywood star or starlet. The game supports a free to play model, meaning the game is free to download, but charges for in game-items. The game was a hit, earning US$1.6 million in its first five days of release. In July, the game’s developer Glu Mobile announced that the game was the fifth highest earning game in Apple’s App Store.
In April 2015, Kardashian and West traveled to the Armenian Quarter of the Old City in Jerusalem to have their daughter, North, baptized in the Armenian Apostolic Church. The ceremony took place at the Cathedral of St. James. Khloe Kardashian was appointed the godmother of North.
In May 2015, Kardashian released a portfolio book called ‘Selfish’, a 325-page collection of self-taken photos of herself. In December 2015, Kardashian released an emoji pack for IOS devices called Kimoji. The paid app quickly became a top earner for Apple, becoming one of the top 5 most bought apps that week.
In August 2015, Kardashian was the cover model for Vogue Spain.
On October 2, 2016, while attending Paris Fashion Week, Kardashian was robbed at gunpoint in the apartment where she was staying. Five individuals, dressed as police officers, bound and gagged her, then stole $10 million worth of jewelry. The thieves got in her residence by threatening the concierge. Once they accessed Kardashian’s room, they held a gun to her head, tying her wrists and legs and wrapping duct tape around her mouth as a gag. Kardashian, who was placed in the bathtub, was physically unharmed and reportedly begged for her life. She managed to wriggle her hands free from the plastic ties around her wrists and scream for help. The thieves escaped. On October 6, 2016, it was revealed that filming for the next season of Keeping up with the Kardashians had been placed “on hold indefinitely” after the robbery. Production resumed on October 26. Kardashian postponed a makeup demonstration in Dubai due to the incident.
Kardashian will make a cameo appearance in Ocean’s Eight set for release on June 8, 2018.
Kardashian is one of the many celebrity turned entrepreneurs who are able to leverage their television success by launching profitable side businesses. Kardashian is the founder of the television production company, Kimsaprincess Productions LLC which produces workout DVDs, launched an eponymous fragrance line and the e-commerce shoe shopping website, ShoeDazzle. With her sisters Kourtney and Khloe, she also owns and is expanding D-A-S-H clothing boutiques, designed a clothing line for Bebe and nabbed diet (Quick Trim) and skincare (PerfectSkin) products endorsements.
In 2006, Kardashian entered the business world with her two sisters and opened the boutique shop D-A-S-H in Calabasas, California. In 2007, Kardashian and three partners Brian Lee, Robert Shapiro and MJ Eng founded ShoeDazzle, an online shoe and accessories website. The site now boasts more than 3 million customers, who pay a monthly fee for access to a personalized selection of shoes, jewelry and handbags every month. The site also landed a $40-million investment from the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz. The company is valued at $280 million as of 2012. In March 2009, she launched an endorsement with her company, ShoeDazzle shopping, of which she is the co-founder and chief fashion stylist. She then endorsed multiple other projects including a vanilla cupcake mix flavor called ‘Va-Va-Va-Nilla’ for the bakery, Famous Cupcakes.
Beginning in early 2010, Kardashian and her sisters designed and developed clothing lines for Bebe stores and ‘Virgins, Saints, and Angels’. In April 2010, Kardashian and her sisters released a sunless tanner “Kardashian Glamour Tan”, that month. In October 2011, Kardashian and her sisters opened their Kardashian Khaos store in Las Vegas. In November 2012, Kardashian and her sisters internationally launched the ‘Kardashian Kollection’ in England, as well as launching a line of cosmetics, ‘Khroma Beauty’.
In 2000, 19-year-old Kardashian eloped with music producer Damon Thomas. Thomas filed for divorce in 2003. Kardashian later credited their separation to physical and emotional abuse on his part. Prior to the completion of her divorce, Kardashian began dating singer Ray J.
In May 2011, Kardashian became engaged to NBA player Kris Humphries, then of the New Jersey Nets, whom she had been dating since October 2010. They were married in a wedding ceremony on August 20 in Montecito, California. Earlier that month, she had released her “wedding fragrance” called “Kim Kardashian Love” which coincided with her own wedding. A two-part TV special showing the preparations and the wedding itself aired on E! in early October 2011, amidst what The Washington Post called a “media blitz” related to the wedding. After 72 days of marriage, she filed for divorce from Humphries on October 31, citing irreconcilable differences. Several news outlets surmised that Kardashian’s marriage to Humphries was merely a publicity stunt, to promote the Kardashian family’s brand and their subsequent television ventures. A man professing to be her former publicist, Jonathan Jaxson, also claimed that her short-lived marriage was indeed staged and a ploy to generate money. Kardashian filed suit against Jaxson, saying his claims were untrue, and subsequently settled the case which included an apology from Jaxson. A widely circulated petition asking to remove all Kardashian-related programming from the air followed the split. The divorce was subject to widespread media attention.
Kardashian began dating American rapper and longtime friend Kanye West in April 2012, while still legally married to Humphries. Her divorce was finalized on June 3, 2013, while Kardashian gave birth to her first child with West, daughter North West, on June 15, 2013. Kardashian and West became engaged on October 21, Kardashian’s 33rd birthday, and married on May 24, 2014 at Fort di Belvedere in Florence, Italy. Her wedding dress was designed by Riccardo Tisci of Givenchy with some guests’ dresses designed by designer Michael Costello. Kardashian gave birth to her second child, son Saint West, on December 5, 2015. The couple’s high status and respective careers have resulted in their relationship becoming subject to heavy media coverage; The New York Times referred to their marriage as “a historic blizzard of celebrity.”
As of May 2014, Kardashian was estimated to be worth US$45 million. In 2015, Forbes reported she had “made more this year than ever as her earnings nearly doubled to $53 million from 2014’s $28 million,” and reported that she “has monetized fame better than any other.” Much of her income include wholesale earnings of the Sears line, the Kardashian Kollection, which raked in $600 million in 2013 and the Kardashian Beauty cosmetics line, Kardashian-branded tanning products, the boutique-line DASH, as well as sponsored Instagram and Twitter posts which are collectively worth $10,000-25,000 per post.
Kardashian has expressed pride in her Armenian and Scottish ancestry, although she is not a citizen of either country and cannot speak Armenian. She has advocated for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide on numerous occasions, and encouraged President Barack Obama and the United States government to consider its acknowledgement.
In April 2015, she traveled to Armenia with her husband, her sister Khloé and her daughter North and visited the memorial of the victims in Yerevan. In April 2016, Kardashian wrote an article on her website condemning The Wall Street Journal for running an advertisement denying the Armenian Genocide. During an interview with GQ for the July 2016 issue, Kardashian described herself as a Liberal Republican, fiscally conservative but socially progressive.
Year Title Notes Ref.
2003–06 The Simple Life 4 episodes
2007 Kim K Superstar Leaked pornographic video 
2007–present Keeping Up with the Kardashians Main role
2008 Dancing with the Stars Contestant (6 episodes) 
2008 Bad Girls Club Hosted Reunion Special
2009–13 Kourtney and Kim Take Miami Main role (19 episodes) 
2009–11 America’s Next Top Model Guest star; 2 episodes 
2011–12 Kourtney and Kim Take New York Main role (18 episodes) 
2011 Khloé & Lamar 3 episodes 
2012 Punk’d Episode: “Ashton Kutcher” 
2014 Kourtney and Khloé Take The Hamptons 3 episodes
2014 Celebrities Undercover Episode: “Wendy Williams & Kim Kardashian” 
2015 I Am Cait 5 episodes
2015–present Dash Dolls Executive producer & recurring role 
Year Title Role Ref.
2008 Disaster Movie Lisa Taylor 
2009 Deep in the Valley Summa Eve 
2013 Temptation: Confessions of a Marriage Counselor Ava 
2018 Ocean’s Eight 
Year Title Role Notes Ref.
2009 Brothers Kim Kardashian Episode: “Meet Mike Trainor/Assistant Coach” 
2009 CSI: NY Debbie Fallon Episode: “Second Chances” 
2009 Beyond the Break Elle 4 episodes 
2009 How I Met Your Mother Herself Episode: “Benefits”
2010 90210 Herself Episode: “Senior Year, Baby”
2012 Drop Dead Diva Nikki LePree 4 episodes
2012 Last Man Standing Kim Kardashian Episode: “Tree of Strife”
2012 30 Rock Kim Kardashian (West Coast only) Episode: “Live from Studio 6H”
2014 American Dad! Qurchhhh/Kim Kardashian (voice) Episode: “Blagsnarst, A Love Story” 
2014 2 Broke Girls Herself Episode: “And the Reality Problem” 
Year Title Artist Ref.
2007 “Thnks fr th Mmrs” Fall Out Boy 
2011 “Jam (Turn It Up)” Herself 
2013 “Bound 2” Kanye West 
2016 “M.I.L.F. $” Fergie 
“Wolves” Kanye West 
List of singles, with selected chart positions
Title Year Peak chart
“Jam (Turn It Up)” 2011 —[A] 21 Non-album single
“—” denotes releases that did not chart or were not released in that territory.
Awards and nominations
Teen Choice Awards
Year Category Nominated work / Nominee Result Ref.
2008 Choice TV Female Reality/Variety Star Keeping Up with the Kardashians Nominated 
2009 Choice TV: Female Reality/Variety Star Nominated 
2010 Choice Female Reality/Variety Star[B] Won 
Choice Female Hottie Kim Kardashian Nominated 
Choice Twit Nominated 
2011 Choice TV: Female Reality/Variety Star[C] Keeping Up with the Kardashians Won
Choice Female Hottie Kim Kardashian Nominated 
2012 Choice TV: Female Reality/Variety Star[D] Keeping Up with the Kardashians Won 
2013 Choice TV: Female Reality/Variety Star[E] Won 
2016 Choice TV Show: Reality Keeping Up with the Kardashians Won
2016 Choice Selfie Taker Kim Kardashian Nominated
2016 Choice Instagramer Kim Kardashian Nominated
2016 Choice Social Media Queen Kim Kardashian Nominated
Year Association Category Nominated work / Nominee Result Ref.
2008 Golden Raspberry Awards Worst Supporting Actress Disaster Movie Nominated 
2013 Temptation: Confessions of a Marriage Counselor Won 
2011 People’s Choice Awards Favorite TV Celeb Reality Star Kim Kardashian Won 
Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google. Users can access Gmail on the web and through the mobile apps for Android and iOS, as well as through third-party programs that synchronize email content through POP or IMAP protocols. Gmail started as a limited beta release on April 1, 2004. It exited beta status on July 7, 2009.
Gmail at launch had an initial storage capacity offer of 1 gigabyte per user, a significantly higher number than the 2 megabytes of storage its competitors such as Hotmail offered at that time. Today, the service comes with 15 gigabytes of free storage. Users can receive emails up to 50 megabytes in size, including attachments, while they can send emails up to 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message.
Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a “conversation view” similar to an Internet forum. Gmail is noted by web developers for its pioneering use of Ajax.
Google has stated that “all users of email must necessarily expect that their emails will be subject to automated processing […] Just as a sender of a letter to a business colleague cannot be surprised that the recipient’s assistant opens the letter, people who use web-based email today cannot be surprised if their communications are processed by the recipient’s ECS [electronic communications service] provider in the course of delivery.” Google also claims that Gmail refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those that mention race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements.
As of February 2016, Gmail has one billion active users worldwide, and was the first app on the Google Play Store to hit one billion installations on Android devices. According to a 2014 estimate, 60% of mid-sized US companies, and 92% of startups, were using Gmail.
I’m sure you’ve seen this before. It’s worth reminding ourselves of the changes around us that we can’t stop. It may not happen that way but it’ll be close in many respects:
In 1998, Kodak had 170,000 employees and sold 85% of all photo paper worldwide. Within just a few years, their business model disappeared and they went bankrupt.
Interestingly the inventor of digital photography in 1975 Steven Sasson worked for Kodak but Kodak ignored the new technology and in the process ignored their future!!
What happened to Kodak will happen in a lot of industries in the next 10 years – and most people don’t see it coming.
Did you think in 1998 that 3 years later you would never take pictures on paper film again? Yet digital cameras were invented in 1975. The first ones only had 10,000 pixels, but followed Moore’s law. So as with all exponential technologies, it was a disappointment for a long time, before it became way superior and got mainstream in only a few short years.
It will now happen with Artificial Intelligence, health, autonomous and electric cars, education, 3D printing, agriculture and jobs.
Welcome to the 4th Industrial Revolution.
Welcome to the Exponential Age.
Software will disrupt most traditional industries in the next 5-10 years.
Uber is just a software tool, they don’t own any cars, and are now the biggest taxi company in the world.
Airbnb is now the biggest hotel company in the world, although they don’t own any properties.
Artificial Intelligence : Computers become exponentially better in understanding the world. This year, a computer beat the best Go player in the world, 10 years earlier than expected.
In the US, young lawyers already don’t get jobs. Because of IBM Watson, you can get legal advice (so far for more or less basic stuff) within seconds, with 90% accuracy compared with 70% accuracy when done by humans. So if you study law, stop immediately. There will be 90% fewer lawyers in the future, only specialists will remain.
Watson already helps nurses diagnosing cancer, 4 times more accurate than human nurses.
Facebook now has a pattern recognition software that can recognize faces better than humans.
By 2030, computers will become more intelligent than humans.Autonomous Cars:
In 2018 the first self-driving cars will appear for the public. Around 2020, the complete industry will start to be disrupted. You don’t want to own a car anymore. You will call a car with your phone, it will show up at your location and drive you to your destination. You will not need to park it, you only pay for the driven distance and can be productive while driving.
Our kids will never get a driver’s license and will never own a car. It will change the cities, because we will need 90-95% fewer cars for that. We can transform former parking space into parks. 1.2 million people die each year in car accidents worldwide.
We now have one accident every 100,000 km, with autonomous driving that will^ drop to one accident in 10 million km. That will save a million lives each year.
Most car companies may become bankrupt. Traditional car companies try the evolutionary approach and just build a better car, while tech companies (Tesla, Apple, Google) will do the revolutionary approach and build a computer on wheels. I spoke to a lot of engineers from Volkswagen and Audi; they are completely terrified of Tesla.
Insurance Companies will have massive trouble because without accidents, the insurance will become 100x cheaper. Their car insurance business model will disappear.
Real estate will change. Because if you can work while you commute, people will move further away to live in a more beautiful neighborhood. Electric cars won’t become mainstream until 2020. Cities will be less noisy because all cars will run on electric.
Electricity will become incredibly cheap and clean: Solar production has been on an exponential curve for 30 years, but you can only now see the impact. Last year, more solar energy was installed worldwide than fossil. The price for solar will drop so much that all coal companies will be out of business by 2025.With cheap electricity comes cheap and abundant water.
Desalination now only needs 2kWh per cubic meter. We don’t have scarce water in most places, we only have scarce drinking water. Imagine what will be possible if anyone can have as much clean water as he wants, for nearly no cost.
Health: There will be companies that will build a medical device (called the “Tricorder” from Star Trek) that works with your phone, which takes your retina scan, your blood sample and you breathe into it. It then analyses 54 biomarkers that will identify nearly any disease. It will be cheap, so in a few years everyone on this planet will have access to world class medicine, nearly for free.
3D printing: The price of the cheapest 3D printer came down from $18,000 to $400 within 10 years. In the same time, it became 100 times faster.
All major shoe companies started 3D printing shoes.
Spare airplane parts are already 3D printed in remote airports.
The space station now has a printer that eliminates the need for the large number of spare parts they used to have in the past.
At the end of this year, new smart phones will have 3D scanning possibilities. You can then 3D scan your feet and print your perfect shoe at home.
In China, they already 3D printed a complete 6-storey office building. By 2027, 10% of everything that’s being^ produced will be 3D printed.
Business Opportunities: If you think of a niche^ you want to go in, ask yourself: “in the future, do you think we will have that?” and if the answer is yes, how can you make that happen sooner? If it doesn’t work with your phone, forget the idea.
And any idea designed for success in the 20th century is doomed in to failure in the 21st century.
Work: 70-80% of jobs will disappear in the next 20 years. There will be a lot of new jobs, but it is not clear if there will be enough new jobs in such a small time.
Agriculture: There will be a $100 agricultural robot in the future. Farmers in 3rd world countries can then become managers of their field instead of working all days on their fields. Agroponics will need much less water.
The first Petri dish produced veal is now available and will be cheaper than cow-produced veal in 2018. Right now, 30% of all agricultural surfaces is used for cows. Imagine if we don’t need that space anymore.
There are several startups that will bring insect protein to the market shortly. It contains more protein than meat. It will be labeled as “alternative protein source”
(because most people still reject the idea of eating insects).
There is an app call “moodies” which can already tell in which mood you are.
Until 2020 there will be apps that can tell by your facial expressions if you are lying. Imagine a political debate where it’s being displayed when they are telling the truth and when not.
Bitcoin will become mainstream this year and might even become the default reserve currency.
Longevity: Right now, the average life span increases by 3 months per year. Four years ago, the life span used to be 79 years, now it’s^ 80 years. The increase itself is increasing and by 2030, there will be more than one year increase per year. So we all might live for a long long time, probably way more than 100. By that time the elites will have a secondary Brain embedded close to both sides of their fronto-temporal scalp it stores information about their experiences books they read what they heard etc through a High Def Camera just below their eyelids. For those who can afford it forgetfulness will be a forgotten phenomenon.
Advanced stem cell technology will allow you to ” make ” your own organs or replace defective ones early. Life expectancy will be around 115 to 125 yrs in most of developed world and around 100 years in the rest of the world.
Education: The cheapest smart phones are already at $10 in Africa and Asia. Until 2020, 70% of all humans will own a smart phone. That means, everyone has the same access to world class education.
April Fools’ Day (sometimes called All Fools’ Day) is celebrated every year on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes. The jokes and their victims are called April fools. People playing April Fool jokes expose their prank by shouting April Fool. Some newspapers, magazines, and other published media report fake stories, which are usually explained the next day or below the news section in small letters. Although popular since the 19th century, the day is not a public holiday in any country.
Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales (1392) contains the first recorded association between April 1 and foolishness.
An 1857 ticket to “Washing the Lions” at the Tower of London in London. No such event ever took place.
The custom of setting aside a day for the playing of harmless pranks upon one’s neighbor is recognized everywhere.[dubious ] Some precursors of April Fools’ Day include the Roman festival of Hilaria.
Bertha R. McDonald, in Harper’s Weekly explicated an origin of April Fools’ Day, stating that some “authorities gravely back with it to the time of Noah and the ark, and the London Public Advertiser of March 13, 1769, prints the following paragraph concerning this theory: ‘The mistake of Noah sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated, on the first day of April, and to perpetuate the memory of this deliverance it was thought proper, whoever forgot so remarkable a circumstance, to punish them by sending them upon some sleeveless errand similar to that ineffectual message upon which the bird was sent by the patriarch’.”
In Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1392), the “Nun’s Priest’s Tale” is set Syn March bigan thritty dayes and two. Modern scholars believe that there is a copying error in the extant manuscripts and that Chaucer actually wrote, Syn March was gon. Thus the passage originally meant 32 days after March, i.e. 2 May, the anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia, which took place in 1381. Readers apparently misunderstood this line to mean “32 March”, i.e. April 1. In Chaucer’s tale, the vain cock Chauntecleer is tricked by a fox.
In 1508, French poet Eloy d’Amerval referred to a poisson d’avril (April fool, literally “Fish of April”), a possible reference to the holiday. In 1539, Flemish poet Eduard de Dene wrote of a nobleman who sent his servants on foolish errands on April 1. In 1686, John Aubrey referred to the holiday as “Fooles holy day”, the first British reference. On April 1, 1698, several people were tricked into going to the Tower of London to “see the Lions washed”.
In the Middle Ages, New Year’s Day was celebrated on March 25 in most European towns. In some areas of France, New Year’s was a week-long holiday ending on April 1. Some writers suggest that April Fools’ originated because those who celebrated on January 1 made fun of those who celebrated on other dates. The use of January 1 as New Year’s Day was common in France by the mid-16th century, and this date was adopted officially in 1564 by the Edict of Roussillon.
In the Netherlands, the origin of April Fools’ Day is often attributed to the Dutch victory at Brielle in 1572, where the Spanish Duke Álvarez de Toledo was defeated. “Op 1 april verloor Alva zijn bril.” is a Dutch proverb, which can be translated to: “On the first of April, Alva lost his glasses.” In this case, the glasses (“bril” in Dutch) serve as a metaphor for Brielle. This theory, however, provides no explanation for the international celebration of April Fools’ Day.