Tag Archives: cars

How to Ride a Segway Safely

How to Ride a Segway Safely
Author Info
Updated: July 21, 2019 | References

Segway injuries are reportedly on the rise,[1] and with the Segway-caused death of James Heselden, owner of the Segway company,[2] it’s easy to be concerned about the safety of using Segways. The Segway company warns new users that “whenever you ride the Segway HT, you risk injury from loss of control, collisions, and falls” and that it’s your responsibility to reduce these risks.

When used correctly, Segways present a clean, safe, and enjoyable means for getting around, and keeping safe is really about using your common sense and keeping an eye out for potential hazards. Here are some suggestions on how to ride a Segway safely.

Steps

1
Learn how to operate the Segway before attempting to use it alone. Read the user manual thoroughly. It is strongly advised that you seek instruction from someone who is qualified and experienced in operating Segways.
Practice with people who know Segways before heading off on your own. At the very least, have a spotter when you first climb on and practice.
See How to operate a Segway for more details.

2
Wear appropriate clothing. At a minimum, wear a safety helmet. Other protective gear to consider wearing includes:
Knee and elbow padding, wrist guards.
Eye protection.
If you’re using the Segway at night (presuming it is legal to do so wherever you live), wear a high visibility jacket so that people can see you easily. If riding at night, always add lights so that you can see and be seen.
3
Keep a firm hold on the Segway at all times. Always have both feet firmly aboard, and both hands holding the handlebar. Don’t try carrying anything in one hand and maneuvering with only one hand. Use a backpack or a cargo holder if you need to carry stuff.
4
Avoid abrupt maneuvers when riding a Segway.[3] Although the Segway is able to sense your movement and aims to re-balance you, this mechanism may not be able to rectify your balance if you move too abruptly forward or backward.
Don’t turn a segway too fast. Fast turns can cause you to lose control; always lean into a turn and take it slowly.
Don’t stop or start a Segway too fast.
Don’t ride backward. This ability is meant only for maneuvering out of a tight spot or turning around, not for travel.
5
Avoid speeding. The Segway will warn you if you’re going too fast, using a “Speed Limiter”; it pushes the handlebar back as a way of slowing you down. Heed this and stop leaning forward.
Heed the Stick Shake Warning. This warning is set off when you ride too fast backward or you push the Segway beyond its limits, such as going over rough terrain, down a slope, or speeding up or slowing down too rapidly.[4] Slow down. If it doesn’t stop after slowing down, stop and get off as it could be telling you that your battery packs are low or that there are maintenance issues with the Segway.
Indoors, keep to a slow walking pace, stay in the center of corridors as much as possible, give way to every person, and don’t take the Segway where it’s not permitted.
Outdoors, aim to keep to a fast walking pace, again giving way to pedestrians and being very careful when going around corners.
6
Keep to solid, even ground. Segways are not designed for all-terrain moves. Stick with the paved surfaces they’re meant for.
Any abrupt terrain change can cause problems for your safety, such as riding from grass to pavement, speed bump, etc.[5] Do this slowly and with care.
Step off a Segway and use the power assist mode any time you are unsure of how to handle the terrain or area that you’re crossing.
Don’t ride on roads. Not only is the Segway not made to be a road vehicle, but it’s dangerous and may also be illegal. Cross roads with care, use power assist to walk it across if safer.
7
Maintain a safe distance between you and the handlebar. Leaning on the handlebar can reduce your ability to control the Segway properly.
8
Avoid pedestrians. You are moving faster than pedestrians and some pedestrians won’t even hear your approach. Always be on the alert for avoiding them, and be ready to call out if anything goes wrong before you can brake.
Generally, keep to the right of the sidewalk in countries with right side drive and keep to the left of the footpath in countries with left side drive, unless your pedestrian traffic norms are different. Heed all local rules about use of sidewalks.
9
Watch out for obstacles. If there are things in the way of your Segway, they have the potential to knock you off or create a collision. It’s up to you to see them, which can be difficult if you’re distracted by sightseeing or chatting. Common objects that cause problems include park benches, light poles, signposts, and trees.[6]
Avoid holes, curbs, and steps when using the Segway. A Segway can easily trip up on such obstacles.
Don’t take your Segway down a steep slope. Doing so will cause it to unbalance, and it’s very likely that you’ll be thrown out.
Don’t ride a Segway on any surface that is slippery, such as ice (including black ice, be aware!), snow, wet grass, oily or greasy areas, or wet floors.
Don’t ride over loose items such as branches, pebbles, rocks, broken glass, etc. These can cause the Segway to lose traction and tip you out.
10
Think ahead. As with riding a bike, scooter, or any other wheeled transportation that interacts with traffic and pedestrians, stay alert all of the time and react ahead of things happening.
Slow down (and stop if needed) at crossings, intersections, groups of people, driveways, around corners, doorways or other low-hanging areas, etc.
Get out of the way of cars, cyclists, and other traffic. Realize that often you can’t be seen or heard, or people may not equate a Segway with being something they need to stop for.
Avoid iPod oblivion or cell phone distractions. Don’t use MP3 players or cell phones while operating the Segway.
Don’t drink and ride.
11
Stop your Segway before getting off it. Don’t let go of a Segway that is still in balance mode or it will continue to travel away from you and could potentially collide with someone or something.
Community Q&A
Question
Do I need two hands to ride a Segway safely?
Community Answer
If it has a handle, yes.
Question
How do I avoid making it explode?
Community Answer
Don’t drive your Segway into fire, acid pools or drive while carry flaming propane tanks. Also don’t shoot it with a gun, run it over by a car, and finally, don’t throw it off an airplane.
Question
What can I do if there are no handlebars?
Community Answer
Just make sure that you are even more careful, and make sure you practice a lot at the park or a safe area. If you are a child who has a Segway without handle bars, make sure you are supervised by an adult or someone you know. Ideally, you should get one with handlebars, it’s safer.
Question
Should I give a Segway to my 10-year-old son?
Community Answer
That’s completely up to you. It should not be dangerous as long as it’s used with parental supervision.
Question
Are Segways as dangerous in terms of electrical safety as hoverboards?
Community Answer
Segways are more safe and secure. They even are used for professional jobs such as law-enforcement patrolling in malls and towns.
Question
Are Segways safe?
Community Answer
If you use it correctly and wear a helmet, Segways are generally safe.
Question
Are Segways easy for old people to ride?
Community Answer
Yes, assuming the individual is confident enough to stay upright. I wouldn’t suggest it for elderly people with existing mobility issues.
Question
What’s the easiest way to get on and off a Segway?
Community Answer
To get on the Segway, grab the handlebars and step onto it, one foot at a time. To get off the Segway, step backwards, one foot at a time, before releasing the handlebars.
Question
Do I have to have a driver license?
gαиgѕтєя
Community Answer
No, you do not need a driver’s license to ride a Segway, but you do need to be 16 or older to ride one.
Question
How long is the battery life? How far can I go on one charge?
Community Answer
The battery life depends on the make and model of the Segway, but you should be getting anywhere from 8-12 miles on a full charge.
Tips
Know your height. You become taller on a segway; keep this in mind when going under doorways, bridges, and other overhanging structures!
If using Segways for work purposes, ensure that all personnel are adequately trained in its use and safety.
Deal with faults immediately.
Segways have a minimum weight requirement which prevents children from riding them. Be sure to adhere to this.
Read the segway rider’s guide thoroughly before using the segway.
No wheelies or other stunts. A one-wheel only Segway is a Segway about to tip over and take you with it. If you’re keen about stunt riding, buy a bike.
Segways are not designed to carry more than one person; don’t give anyone else a ride on a Segway.
Warnings
Obey all local rules, ordinances, and regulations about where it is legal and not legal to ride Segways.
Don’t wear anything that could get caught up in the wheels, such as scarves or really long coats.
Don’t ride a Segway through revolving doors, on escalators or stairs, over gangplanks, on narrow ledges, or anywhere else unsafe.
Segway motors can cut out suddenly without warning. As a result of this, the rider can be catapulted over the front as the Segway drops down, landing the rider on the pavement and potentially suffering from injury.
The Segway company recommends that riders be over the age of 16.
Things You’ll Need
Segway
Segway manual
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About This Article
wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 12 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Together, they cited 6 references. This article has also been viewed 98,372 times.
Co-authors: 12
Updated: July 21, 2019
Views: 98,372
Article Rating: 87% – 100 votes
Categories: Cars & Other Vehicles
References
↑Asher Moses, Safety Concerns After Segway Death, http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/world/4175511/Safety-concerns-after-Segway-death
↑Lindor Reynolds, No way a Segway is a way to get around, http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/no-way-a-segway-is-a-way-to-get-around-103912784.html
↑Segway, how to ride the SegwayHuman Transporter (HT) safely, p.6
↑Segway, how to ride the SegwayHuman Transporter (HT) safely, p. 10
↑Segway, how to ride the SegwayHuman Transporter (HT) safely, p.8
↑Asher Moses, Safety Concerns After Segway Death, http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/world/4175511/Safety-concerns-after-Segway-death
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How to Ride a “Hoverboard

How to Ride a “Hoverboard” (Two‐Wheeled Self‐Balancing Scooter)
Author Info
Updated: July 16, 2019 | References

So you have a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter – now you want to learn how to ride it. Its super easy to learn and even easier than learning to ride a full size Segway! Get started with step 1 and you’ll be smooth sailing in no time.

Part One of Two:
Stepping On

1
Read the instruction manual first if included. (Don’t worry if it doesn’t include one, many brands don’t).

2
Turn on the scooter.
The on button is normally a silver push kind, located on the back near the charge port.

3
Check it has full battery on the battery gauge. If it doesn’t, then charge it using the cable provided.

4
Position the scooter next to something you can hold on to.

5
Holding on to the object step one foot on.
There is often a light ‘next to the battery gauge, if it turns green then it is safe to put your second foot on, if it is red then turn off the board and try again. If the problem persists contact the supplier.
6
Carefully place your second foot on.
If the scooter moves its fine, just re-position and start again.
Keep going until you get it right.
7
Once you have achieved your balance, carefully point your toes forwards to go forwards.
Part Two of Two:
Learning to Maneuver
1
Once you can go forwards without help, start practicing turning.
2
To turn clockwise, put your right toes down only. You will turn.
It is very important to keep your other foot horizontal, if you don’t do this then it will counteract the turn and may unbalance you.
3
To turn anti-clockwise, put your left toes down.
4
To go backwards, lean back.
5
Handle slopes with care. Most mini self-balancing scooters can handle slopes of up to 15 degrees,  although it does vary with brands.
6
Watch your speed. When you achieve top speed you will normally hear a beep. This tells you that you have maxed out the speed and should slow down.
Now you can start to do spins and go at decent speeds!
Community Q&A
Question
Should I add lights in the front or back?
Peter Betts
Community Answer
It doesn’t matter which way. I ride with them at the front for personal protection, although putting them at the back could provide awareness for traffic. You could also add lights to both the front and the back.
Question
How do I increase my speed?
Community Answer
Lean forward! That will give you more speed as you ride.
Question
What do the different flashing lights mean?
Peter Betts
Community Answer
The lights normally go solid when pressure is applied to one side. If both sides of lights are solid, then pressure is on both sides. The lights flash when the battery is low, and very fast blinking could indicate that the board is not calibrated. The manufacturers may be able to provide detailed light sequence plans upon request.
Question
How long do we charge it?
Community Answer
It depends on the brand, but it is usually an hour and a half to 2 hours.
Question
Is it possible to ride with one foot?
SnoopWarden
Community Answer
No, it is not possible to ride with one foot. The board will not work. It will most likely vibrate and flip over, or crash. Don’t try it.
Question
Do I ride it with lights behind or frontward?
Community Answer
You ride it with the lights forward, but you can add lights at the back of the board for your own safety if you ride at night.
Tips
Take it slow and be patient. If you rush it then you may damage the scooter.
Don’t hesitate when first getting on. The longer you take to step on the more the scooter will wobble and move.
Consider having someone to hold on to and help you when you learn.
Consider buying some elbow and knee pads. This will help protect you whilst you are still learning.
When you want to go up onto bumps or pavements, try putting one wheel on first and then the other. This will dramatically improve your chances of succeeding.
When you go fast you may feel a wobble, slow down gently to avoid the wobble growing and you Falling off.
Try and be smooth, don’t do any sharp or sudden movements. Sharp movements will impact on your stability and speed.
Do not start to do stunts at the start, you need to be more experienced.
Some manufacturers have two modes. One is beginner and one is pro. Hold down the Manual on switch whilst on until you hear a beep to switch.
Warnings
These are heavy. If you fall off then it may hurt you or other people. Be careful of what you do and don’t try anything dangerous.
Be careful of the people around you, you don’t want to hurt them or get int their way.
Supervise charging and lithium-ion batteries, as they can potentially explode or leak.
Wear a helmet at the start for safety.
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About This Article
wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 23 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has also been viewed 23,276 times.
Co-authors: 23
Updated: July 16, 2019
Views: 23,276
Article Rating: 74% – 77 votes
Categories: Cars & Other Vehicles
References
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Will4/5-6/50/section/72
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How to Break a Chain

How to Break a Chain
Co-authored by wikiHow Staff
Updated: March 28, 2019 | References

Whether you own a bike or simply work with chains a lot, there will probably come a time at some point where you’ll need to break a chain in order to remove and repair it. If you’re trying to break a bike chain, you may need to use pliers if there’s a master link on the chain, or simply use a chain tool that will break one of the rivets. Luckily, whether you’re using a chain tool, pliers, or bolt cutters, there are some simple and easy methods you can follow for breaking a chain.

Method One of Three:
Using a Chain Tool

1
Make sure the chain is taut. You’ll want to avoid having any slack in your chain as you’re trying to break it. If you’re working on a bike chain, shift the chain to the largest front and rear sprockets. Then, shift it to the smallest cogs to make the chain wrap around the derailleur pulleys and make it as taut as possible.[1]
If the chain is wrapped around the derailleur pulley, make sure the pulley does not pull so far back that the chain makes contact with itself.

2
Locate the special connecting rivet and avoid breaking the chain there. Connecting rivets will look different from other rivets in the chain; they may have special flaring or color that other rivets don’t. When preparing to break the chain with a chain tool, make sure you break a rivet that is several rivets away from any connecting rivets in the chain.[2]
If you’re having trouble identifying connecting rivets in your chain, search the brand name of your chain along with the words “connecting rivets.” If your chain has connecting rivets, the manufacturer will probably have a picture of them available on their website.

3
Place the chain tool on the rivet where you plan to break the chain. Line the driving pin of the chain tool up with the rivet in a straight line and make sure the two are in contact. If your chain tool has a receptacle for the pin once it’s removed, make sure the rivet is lined up with this receptacle as well.[3]
You may need to unscrew part of the chain tool to retract the driving pin before you can place the tool on the rivet.
Make sure the driving pin is in the center of the rivet head; otherwise, you won’t be able to force it out.

4
Force the rivet out to break the chain. Once you’ve lined up the driving pin with the rivet head, turn the handle with force and slowly drive the rivet out of the front plate and partially through the rear plate. Before completely removing the rivet, withdraw the pin and break the chain with your thumbs, leaving the rivet slightly protruding from the rear plate.[4]
This method will allow you to easily locate the hole if you decide to reconnect the link.
If you don’t plan on reinstalling or repairing the chain, feel free to push the rivet all the way out with the chain tool.
Method Two of Three:
Using Pliers

1
Shift the bike chains so that they’re taut. To avoid having any slack in the chain, shift it to the largest front and rear sprockets, and then shift it to the smallest cogs so that it wraps around the derailleur pulleys. This will make the chain as taut as possible.[5]
If the chain is wrapped around the derailleur pulley, make sure the pulley does not pull so far back that the chain makes contact with itself.

2
Locate the master link on the chain. On a linked chain, the master link will have a pair of unique side plates that may be a different color than the other links. This is the link you’ll disengage to break the chain when using pliers.[6]
The master link will also probably have an embossed arrow on it pointing towards the inside of the chain loop.

3
Use the pliers to disengage the master link. Position the pliers over the master link such that one head is placed on the outward side of the master link pin and will be squeezed in the direction of the arrow on the side plate. The other head should be placed on the outward side of the opposite pin. Then, squeeze the pliers to push the pins together and press both side plates inward until the link is broken.
If you have special pliers designed specifically for use on master links, they will automatically press the side plates inward for you.[7]
Method Three of Three:
Breaking a Chain with Bolt Cutters
1
Adjust the cutters to match the strength of the chain. Most bolt cutters come with an adjustment bolt that allows you to adjust the tension on the blades. Use this bolt to set the correct tension for the hardness of the chain you’re breaking as well as your own operational comfort.[8]
For small chains like bike chains, you most likely will not need to adjust your bolt cutters; the weakest setting will probably suffice.
2
Mark where you want to make the break on the chain. To ensure you make a clean cut in the right location, use a marking line or even a small dot to to mark where you want the cut to be made. Use a marker, paint, or sharp blade to make the mark.[9]
You should also clamp the chain before cutting it, if possible, to make the chain easier to break. However, this is not strictly necessary for breaking a chain with bolt cutters.
3
Open the blades and position the cutters over the mark. Pull the handles of the bolt cutters apart to open the blades, making sure to open them as far apart as possible before proceeding. Then, move the cutter head so that the marked part of the chain is situated between the blades.[10]
4
Close the blades and apply force. Move the handles back towards one another to close the blades over the chain, going slowly at first. Once the blades have made physical contact with the chain, continue closing the blades and apply force until the chain has been broken.[11]
Make sure you’re using a firm grip when closing the blades. If your grip is too loose, the blades may slip away from the material and cause harm to you or others around you.
Some chains may require you to break off from your initial cut, reposition the blades over the cut, and apply force a second time before they finally break.
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About This Article
Co-Authored By:
wikiHow Staff Editor
This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Together, they cited information from 11 references.
Co-authors: 2
Updated: March 28, 2019
Views: 10,677
Article Rating: 100% – 5 votes
Categories: Cars & Other Vehicles
References
↑https://momentummag.com/diy-how-to-fix-a-bike-chain/
↑https://momentummag.com/diy-how-to-fix-a-bike-chain/
↑https://momentummag.com/diy-how-to-fix-a-bike-chain/
↑http://www.madegood.org/bikes/repair/break-a-chain-with-a-chain-tool/
↑https://momentummag.com/diy-how-to-fix-a-bike-chain/
↑https://www.roadbikerider.com/fix-broken-chain/
↑https://www.roadbikerider.com/fix-broken-chain/
↑https://www.sharpen-up.com/use-bolt-cutters-like-boss/
↑https://www.sharpen-up.com/use-bolt-cutters-like-boss/
More References
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How to Ready Your Vehicle for a Hurricane

How to Ready Your Vehicle for a Hurricane
Co-authored by wikiHow Staff
Updated: March 29, 2019 | References

Hurricanes can make for a stressful time in any vehicle owner’s life. They can cause extensive damage to people and property, so it is essential to prepare for disaster before it strikes. Luckily, there are many things you can do to up your preparedness, since it can mean the difference between peril and safety. Besides ensuring mechanical safety and stocking up on necessary supplies, you can also position your car to minimize damage and learn how to maximize your insurance policy.

Method One of Three:
Maintaining Your Vehicle

1
Check the parts of your car that require regular maintenance. Replace parts that look worn-down or torn. If it has been a while since you last checked your car for maintenance issues, you will want to do that now.

2
Check and replenish all fluids. If you need to evacuate quickly, your vehicle needs to be in safe working order. Essential fluids include oil, transmission, brake, battery, power steering, radiator coolant, and windshield wiper fluids.

3
Replace your windshield wipers. If you must drive during a storm, visibility is key. Wiper blades can easily be damaged by the sun and debris on the windshield. Test them to make sure they can move a large amount of water off of the windshield without breaking or slowing down.[1]
4
Fill up your tires to their optimal capacity. This information can be found on the tire or by consulting your car’s handbook.[2] Be aware that the number on the side of the tire may be the maximum pressure allotted, so check the inside of the doorjamb for more specific tire inflation information. Be sure to check your spare tire as well, and brush up on how to change a tire.
5
Consult your vehicle insurance agency about your policy’s hurricane coverage. You will need to inquire about what is covered, as well as what steps to take in the event that your vehicle is damaged and you need to make a claim.
6
Take pictures of the interior and exterior of your car before the storm. You may need these later to prove that any damage you are claiming was caused by the hurricane.[3] You may also consider getting a full mechanical diagnostic before the hurricane for insurance purposes and to check your vehicle’s general safety.
If your vehicle sustains damage, start the claim process as soon as you are safe and able.
Method Two of Three:
Stocking Your Car for Evacuation
1
Fill your gas tank and any reserve canisters to their full capacity. Hurricanes can affect incoming supply routes and cause power outages, so fill up long before the storm hits to avoid long lines at the station, supply shortages, or technical issues at the pump.[4]
2
Remove unnecessary external accessories. If you use extra antennae, a bike rack, or other temporary items on the outside of your car, they can quickly become deadly projectiles in the event of high-speed winds.[5] Place them in a safe spot where the wind cannot pick them up such as in a basement, crawlspace, or sturdy outdoor shed.
3
Put together an emergency kit for your vehicle. It is best to store these items in a sturdy, waterproof container.[6] Avoid locking canisters since you may need to access these items quickly and could potentially lose a key or forget a code. Instead, opt for a container that secures with a quick-release latch or zipper.
“Must-have” emergency items include: an automotive toolkit, a pocket knife, extra fuses, road flares, emergency tire sealant, extra quarts of motor oil, power steering fluid and antifreeze, sandpaper, electrical and duct tape, a tire jack, jumper cables, a flashlight, extra batteries, a battery-powered radio, pen and paper, a blanket, a can opener, a first aid kit, and extra reserves of water and food.
4
Pack a go-bag of personal essentials. Include a couple changes of clothes, extra shoes and socks, basic toiletries, an extra pair glasses if you wear them, a car charger for your cell phone, and cash. Any bag will do, but be sure it is strong, easy to carry, and secure like a suitcase or duffel bag. Keep this on your person at all times, since you may not be able to return home for basic items.
Keep important documents such as your car title, insurance paperwork, registration information, and a copy of your ID in a resealable plastic baggie in your go-bag.
Method Three of Three:
Parking Safely
1
Park on high ground, against buildings, and away from falling debris if you need to stay put. Do not park near any tall or loose structures such as power lines, light poles, stop lights, road signs, or trees as they may fall and cause costly damage.[7] Apply your emergency brake, if applicable.
2
Store your car in your garage, if possible. If you choose to park in your garage, shore up the garage doors and windows with sandbags and plywood that is ½- to ¾-inch thick. Remove items from shelves and attics, and place them on the ground.[8]
Consider parking your car outside parallel to the garage door to break the wind and (hopefully) maintain the integrity of the garage door.[9]
3
Reinforce your vehicle’s windows. Use masking tape to fully cover each window with a crisscross pattern. While it might not keep your windows from breaking, it will make clean-up easier in the event that they do, and it will protect you from shattered glass if you are in the car when it happens.[10] Make sure the windows and sunroof are sealed tightly.
4
Cover your car. Electrical wiring is prone to corrosion when exposed to salt water, which can cause system failure of your transmission, engine, or drivetrain.[11] Use a thick, padded tarp to cover your vehicle to prevent damage from water and flying debris.
Community Q&A
Question
What if the vehicle is a limousine?
Community Answer
It makes no difference. Whether you’re driving or someone else is driving, it doesn’t matter. A limousine is still a car.
Question
Should I go into a parking garage?
Community Answer
Yes, if your home isn’t an option, although it isn’t ideal. You would want to head for the interior of the garage on a higher floor (to avoid flooding). However, again, this is not ideal since the structure’s potential collapse could seriously injure you.
Question
Should I park my car under the car port next to the house?
Community Answer
If it’s structurally sound, then go for it. If you have any doubts though, then I would not suggest parking your car under the car port.
Question
Should I park my vehicle facing my garage door, or parallel to it?
Community Answer
Back your vehicle inside of the garage, so your vehicle is facing the garage door.
Question
Is it better to park my car facing the wind or crosswise to it?
Community Answer
It’s better to park your car facing the wind. If you park crosswise to it, you risk flipping your car.
Tips
Keep yourself up to date with reports from your local news stations and the National Hurricane Center to verify safe vehicle operating conditions.
Fresh water is the most important item you can possess during a storm. Not only can it be used for vehicle maintenance, but it can also be used for drinking. The basic requirement for water during an emergency is 3L (0.8 gal) per person per day.[12]
Warnings
Never mishandle gasoline. Avoid spills, contact with your skin, or inhaling gasoline. Be sure to store gasoline in a cool, ventilated area away from flame and exposure to the elements (such as in an outdoor shed). Do not store gasoline inside your home or garage.
You should never drive during a hurricane unless absolutely necessary. Standard cars can be swept away in only a foot of water. Avoid driving into flooded streets, and estimate the water depth by observing other cars. If you have driven through water, dry your brakes by gently applying the brake while maintaining speed with the gas pedal.[13]
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About This Article
Co-Authored By:
wikiHow Staff Editor
This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Together, they cited information from 13 references.
Co-authors: 9
Updated: March 29, 2019
Views: 50,256
Article Rating: 87% – 15 votes
Categories: Cars & Other Vehicles | Storms | Car Emergencies
References
↑http://www.dmv.org/how-to-guides/replace-windshield-wipers.php
↑https://www.cars.com/articles/2013/06/how-to-check-and-fill-tires/
↑https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2011/08/weathering-the-storm-hurricane-car-survival-tips/index.htm
↑https://itstillruns.com/protect-car-during-hurricane-4474565.html
↑https://itstillruns.com/protect-car-during-hurricane-4474565.html
↑http://stormassist.org/article/top-ten-things-to-pack-in-a-basic-weather-emergency-kit/
↑https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_Hurricane_Facts/faq_storms.html
↑http://www.roadandtravel.com/autoadvice/2006/hurricanesafety.htm
↑https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2011/08/weathering-the-storm-hurricane-car-survival-tips/index.htm
More References
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How to Seal a Plastic Gas Tank

How to Seal a Plastic Gas Tank
Co-authored by wikiHow Staff
Updated: September 6, 2019 | References

Plastic gas tanks are commonly found on lawnmowers, ATVs, motorcycles, and cars. They’re popular because they’re resilient and easily replaced when damaged. However, if a plastic fuel tank does sustain small holes or tears, there is a fairly easy way to make the repair. Use epoxy putty and a small sheet of fiberglass to seal the opening. If you’re experienced with welding, you can use a plastic welder to seal the crack instead. Before you fix your plastic tank, make sure that you drain it and clean it out thoroughly with a cloth and vinegar. Always wear protective eyewear, gloves, and a dust mask when working with toxic fumes.

Method One of Three:
Draining and Cleaning Your Tank

1
Drain the tank into a gas-safe container for temporary storage. Place a container under the opening of your tank. The container must be safe for storing gasoline—like a gas jug, gas canister, or filling can. If you’re storing gasoline in a container with a smaller cap or opening, stick a funnel inside the opening of your container before pouring your gas. Open the cap on your gas tank and let the fuel drain into the container. Set it aside in a safe area.[1]
It will say “petrol,” “gasoline,” or “gas” on the side of any gas-safe container.
Warning: If you use an unapproved container, you could accidentally expose your gasoline to a contaminate that ends up harming your engine in the future. In addition, unapproved containers may be more prone to holding an electrical charge. You run the risk of an explosion or fire if you store your gas in an unapproved container and handle it inappropriately.

2
Let your tank dry out a little bit and wipe it down. If you can, wipe the inside of your tank with a clean cloth or towel. Wipe the outside down with another clean cloth or towel. If it’s warm out, leave your tank in the sun with the opening facing up for 3-4 hours. If it isn’t warm out, let it air dry for at least 6 hours. Wipe it down again after it dries to remove most of the gasoline residue.[2]
If you’re using epoxy putty to patch your hole, you don’t really need to get all of the gasoline residue off.
You may not be able to reach inside your tank to wipe it. It’s fine if you can’t, just let it dry out a little longer.
3
Fill the tank with white vinegar and soak it overnight if you’re welding or soldering. If you’re going to weld or solder the crack or hole, it’s a good idea to clean the tank a little more thoroughly. Put a piece of tape over the crack or hole or fill it with a small screw to temporarily close the gap. Fill the tank with white vinegar up to the brim. Let it soak overnight to erode the remaining gas particles.[3]
You can use laundry detergent and hot water instead of vinegar if you want.
After soaking overnight, empty the tank and rinse it with water. You can throw in 4-5 tablespoons (80-100 g) of baking soda before rinsing it too if it still smells like gas.
This is the main reason that epoxy putty is the preferred method for sealing a plastic tank. It requires less cleaning beforehand and isn’t as dangerous since there’s no heat involved.
4
Let the tank air dry again after cleaning it with water. After you’ve soaked the tank in white vinegar and rinsed it out, let it sit out in the sun for another 3-4 hours. If it isn’t sunny out, let it air dry in a well-ventilated area for at least 6 hours. Wipe the tank down again with a dry cloth to wipe any residue or water off.
5
Clean the fittings that attach to your tank while it’s off. If you’ve taken the gas tank off already, now is the perfect time to clean the area where your tank attaches to the mower, car, or engine. Turn the electricity for your device off and then get a clean cloth. Wipe the fittings, pipes, or threading where the tank connects to the device.[4]
Friction can produce cracks or seams to split, so cleaning the area around your tank ensures that the tank stays safe in the future.
Wet a rag with rubbing alcohol to clean particularly dirty areas.
Method Two of Three:
Using Epoxy Putty
1
Wipe the unsealed area with rubbing alcohol. Take a cloth and pour some rubbing alcohol in it. Wring the towel out so that the entire cloth is damp. Carefully and gently rub the section where your crack, hole, or leak is. Blot any particularly sensitive sections. Rub at least 1–2 inches (2.5–5.1 cm) around the opening in every direction.[5]
The rubbing alcohol will remove any dirt or grime that may erode the epoxy over time.
Tip: This is the preferred method for sealing a plastic gas tank because it doesn’t involve any heat. It’s also much easier and cheaper than the other methods.

2
Knead the 2-part epoxy putty together to activate it. You can only seal a tank with 2-part epoxy putty that is labeled “plastic putty” or “all-purpose.” Put on a pair of rubber gloves and unwrap the putty. Rub it between both hands and apply pressure. Pull it apart and rub it back together. Mix the 2 parts of putty together until it becomes one solid color.[6]
Make sure that the epoxy you’re using is appropriate for plastic tanks. If you use another putty that’s designed for metal or wood, your tank will continue to leak gas when you fill it.
3
Apply a piece of your putty around the edges of your crack or hole. Pull off a portion your putty and press it around the edges of your crack, hole, or leak. Two-part epoxy putty has the consistency of clay, so you can pull pieces apart and spread it out. Stretch it out on the tank and apply pressure with the tips of your fingers to spread it out. Press it into the plastic so that it’s thinner than 1⁄4 in (0.64 cm).[7]
The epoxy needs to be near-flat. If it’s resting in thick globs around your crack or hole, you’ll struggle to get an airtight seal.
4
Place a small sheet of fiberglass cloth over the epoxy and apply pressure. Get a small strip of fiberglass cloth and cut it so that it fits over your epoxy. Get fiberglass extends at least 1 in (2.5 cm) past the edge of the epoxy you put on the hole or crack. Place the fiberglass over the putty and apply firm pressure to set it permanently over the crack.[8]
You need to wear thick gloves, protective eyewear, and a respirator to cut fiberglass.
You can also cut some fiberglass out of a larger sheet using a straight edge and a utility knife and use that instead of the cloth.
Press down hard to ensure that you remove any air bubbles in the epoxy.
5
Spread the rest of your epoxy over the seams where the fiberglass meets the tank. Use the rest of your epoxy putty to cover the area where your fiberglass meets the plastic tank. Spread it out like you did before by pulling off individual pieces and applying pressure. Cover at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) in both directions where each seam is located to close the gap. Press the epoxy down to flatten it.[9]
There can be no openings where the tank and the fiberglass meet. Cover the entire seam with putty.
6
Let it dry and sand the area by hand to remove excess putty. Wait 4-5 hours for the epoxy to fully settle. Put on a pair of thick gloves, a dust mask, and protective eyewear. Then, take a sheet of 100-grit sandpaper and manually rub the area that you patched. Rub lightly until the putty, fiberglass, and additional layer of putty are near-flush with the plastic on your tank.[10]
You can use standard spray paint the area that you patched if you want to blend it in with the rest of your tank.
Method Three of Three:
Welding the Plastic to Seal It
1
Buy or rent a plastic welder. A plastic welder fills in gaps in plastic by using heat to melt another plastic over the opening. The welder that you use is dependent upon the type and thickness of your plastic. Take your tank to your local hardware store and ask them what rods work best for your tank. [11]
While you can really use any kind of plastic welder, the time it takes and difficulty of the task is greatly reduced if you use a welder with appropriately-sized rods.
2
Put on a welding helmet, thick gloves, and a dust mask. Welding creates a lot of heat and noxious fumes when it is operated. Protect yourself by putting on a welding helmet, wearing thick gloves, and throwing a dust mask or respirator over your mouth and nose. [12]
Wear a respirator instead of a dust mask if you have one. You don’t need a respirator though.
Warning: You can solder the gap in your plastic if you prefer. Soldering is a similar process to welding, but you apply the plastic to the area first and then heat it. Soldering is not preferred since it’s more likely to cause a fire with your gas tank. Only solder your tank if you have experience soldering plastic and have thoroughly cleaned your tank.

3
Set your dry tank in a safe location, preferably outside. Welding produces a lot fumes, so you need to work in a well ventilated area. Working outside is the best option if you have an outdoor space. Make sure that you don’t have any flammable items within 10 feet (3.0 m) of the area that you’re working. [13]
4
Turn your welder on and get your welding rod ready. Turn the welder on by plugging it in and flipping the switch to activate it. Set your temperature on the digital reader and get your plastic welding rod ready. Hold your welding rod at the edge of the crack or hole with your nondominant hand and point the tip of the welder at it before pulling the trigger on the welder to start melting it.[14]
The temperature you set the welder to is dependent upon the type of plastic that you have. Thick plastics need higher temperatures while thin plastics require less heat. The odds are high your tank is acrylic, polyethylene, or polyamide, so start at 660 °F (349 °C) and go up from there.
5
Begin welding by starting on the outside of the hole or crack. Turn your welder on to melt the plastic welding rod directly to the edge of your crack. As soon as the welding rod melts on a spot, press it down a little and slide the rod to the next section. Hold the tip of the welder 1–2 in (2.5–5.1 cm) from the surface of your plastic tank where your rod rests. Move slowly around the entire edge of the crack, leak, or hole. Work in one direction and cover the edge twice if you don’t see the welding material merging with plastic. [15]
You may need to cover your tracks multiple times to get the welding material to merge with the plastic.
It should look like you’re adding a thick liquid to the plastic tank.
Increase the temperature settings on your welder if it isn’t melting the welding rod.
If your crack or leak is really thin, you can simply weld directly over it instead of working from the outside in. The crack has to be really small though. Anything wider than 0.25 inches (0.64 cm) requires working from the outside in.
6
Work your way towards the center of the opening to cover the hole. Once you’ve covered the outer-edge of the crack, hole, or opening, start to work your way inside by layering the welding rod over the areas that you already covered. Continue to hold the welding rod 1–2 in (2.5–5.1 cm) from the surface of your plastic tank and work your way towards the center of the hole. Continue doing this until you completely cover the opening.[16]
You can always go back and cover an exterior section if the welding material doesn’t stick the first time.
7
Wait at least 8 hours to let it fully set. Leave the tank alone for at least 8 hours to give the welding material time to cool and dry. Once you’ve waited, inspect the tank to make sure that you completely covered the opening.[17]
If you missed any sections of the hole or crack, repeat the process to cover the area that you missed. Wait another 5-6 hours and inspect the tank again.
8
Sand the surface to smoothen it out with 100-grit sandpaper. Once you confirm that the welding material is totally covering the hole and given it time to cool off, you can sand it down. Get a sheet of 100-grit sandpaper and rub the area that you welded. Lightly scrub back-and-forth across the entire section until your welding material is near-flush with the rest of your tank.[18]
You can spray paint the plastic tank if you want to cover the welding job.
The welding material will become sharp and jagged over time if you don’t sand it.
Community Q&A
Question
Can a seam in a lawnmower’s plastic fuel tank be repaired using a hot glue gun?
Community Answer
Probably not. The best way to repair is a plastic welder with a plastic rod that matches the plastic of the tank.
Question
Can I seal a plastic gas tank with fiber glass?
Community Answer
Yes. Use a product called Tiger Paste, which is fiberglass and resin all in one. The tank MUST be clean of all dirt, grease and oil. Seal the entire tank except for filler and any vent pipes, or pick up tube openings.
Question
What grit of sandpaper should I use to sand a plastic fuel tank?
Community Answer
You should use 80 or 100 grit sandpaper. 60 grit will work, as well. The idea is to scuff the area, so that the epoxy will have a stronger bond.
Question
Will Flex Shot seal a crack in a plastic gas tank?
Community Answer
It is doubtful because the gasoline will likely dissolve the adhesive in short time, as well as the rubber portion of that stuff. Epoxy or plastic welding are the best options.
Question
Where can I purchase a plastic welder?
Community Answer
Plastic welders are quite expensive. Unless you’re going to start a tank repair business, it may be smarter to rent one. If you really want to purchase one, there are many to choose from online.
Warnings
Never use a welder or soldering tool near an open flame.
Always protect your eyes, hands, and lungs when working with noxious fumes.
Work outside to make clean up easy and prevent any fumes from getting trapped in your work space.
Things You’ll Need
Draining and Cleaning Your Tank
Gas-approved container
Cloth
Using Epoxy Putty
Cloth
Alcohol
Sandpaper
Epoxy glue or putty
Fiberglass patch
Rubber gloves
Thick gloves
Welding helmet
Dust mask or respirator
Welding the Plastic to Seal It
Sandpaper
Thick gloves
Protective eyewear
Dust mask or respirator
Plastic welder
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About This Article
Co-Authored By:
wikiHow Staff Editor
This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Together, they cited information from 18 references. wikiHow’s Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article meets our high standards.
Co-authors: 8
Updated: September 6, 2019
Views: 299,383
Article Rating: 100% – 3 votes
Categories: Cars & Other Vehicles
Article Summary
References
↑https://wheelzine.com/fuel-tank-cleaning-gasoline-tank-cleaning
↑https://wheelzine.com/fuel-tank-cleaning-gasoline-tank-cleaning
↑https://wheelzine.com/fuel-tank-cleaning-gasoline-tank-cleaning
↑https://wheelzine.com/fuel-tank-cleaning-gasoline-tank-cleaning
↑https://www.carbibles.com/repair-a-plastic-gas-tank/#forward
↑https://youtu.be/NjwuZ9MLQTQ?t=155
↑https://www.carbibles.com/repair-a-plastic-gas-tank/#forward
↑https://www.carbibles.com/repair-a-plastic-gas-tank/#forward
↑https://www.carbibles.com/repair-a-plastic-gas-tank/#forward
More References
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How to Determine Gear Ratio

How to Determine Gear Ratio
Co-authored by wikiHow Staff
Updated: August 12, 2019 | References

In mechanical engineering, a gear ratio is a direct measure of the ratio of the rotational speeds of two or more interlocking gears. As a general rule, when dealing with two gears, if the drive gear (the one directly receiving rotational force from the engine, motor, etc.) is bigger than the driven gear, the latter will turn more quickly, and vice versa. We can express this basic concept with the formula Gear ratio = T2/T1, where T1 is the number of teeth on the first gear and T2 is the number of teeth on the second.[1]

Method One of Two:
Finding the Gear Ratio of a Gear Train
Two Gears

1
Start with a two-gear train. To be able to determine a gear ratio, you must have at least two gears engaged with each other — this is called a “gear train.” Usually, the first gear is a “drive gear” attached to the motor shaft and the second is a “driven gear” attached to the load shaft. There may also be any number of gears between these two to transmit power from the drive gear to the driven gear: these are called “idler gears.”[2]
For now, let’s look at a gear train with only two gears in it. To be able to find a gear ratio, these gears have to be interacting with each other — in other words, their teeth need to be meshed and one should be turning the other. For example purposes, let’s say that you have one small drive gear (gear 1) turning a larger driven gear (gear 2).

2
Count the number of teeth on the drive gear. One simple way to find the gear ratio between two interlocking gears is to compare the number of teeth (the little peg-like protrusions at the edge of the wheel) that they both have. Start by determining how many teeth are on the drive gear. You can do this by counting manually or, sometimes, by checking for this information labeled on the gear itself.[3]
For example purposes, let’s say that the smaller drive gear in our system has 20 teeth.
3
Count the number of teeth on the driven gear. Next, determine how many teeth are on the driven gear exactly as you did before for the drive gear.
Let’s say that, in our example, the driven gear has 30 teeth.
4
Divide one teeth count by the other. Now that you know how many teeth are on each gear, you can find the gear ratio relatively simply. Divide the driven gear teeth by the drive gear teeth. Depending on your assignment, you may write your answer as a decimal, a fraction, or in ratio form (i.e., x : y).[4]
In our example, dividing the 30 teeth of the driven gear by the 20 teeth of the drive gear gets us 30/20 = 1.5. We can also write this as 3/2 or 1.5 : 1, etc.
What this gear ratio means is that the smaller driver gear must turn one and a half times to get the larger driven gear to make one complete turn. This makes sense — since the driven gear is bigger, it will turn more slowly.[5]
More than Two Gears
1
Start with a gear train of more than two gears. As its name suggests, a “gear train” can also be made from a long sequence of gears — not just a single driver gear and a single driven gear. In these cases, the first gear remains the driver gear, the last gear remains the driven gear, and the ones in the middle become “idler gears.” These are often used to change the direction of rotation or to connect two gears when direct gearing would make them unwieldy or not readily available.[6]
Let’s say for example purposes that the two-gear train described above is now driven by a small seven-toothed gear. In this case, the 30-toothed gear remains the driven gear and the 20-toothed gear (which was the driver before) is now an idler gear.
2
Divide the teeth numbers of the drive and driven gears. The important thing to remember when dealing with gear trains with more than two gears is that only the driver and driven gears (usually the first and last ones) matter. In other words, the idler gears don’t affect the gear ratio of the overall train at all. When you’ve identified your driver gear and your driven gear, you can find the gear ratio exactly as before.
In our example, we would find the gear ratio by dividing the thirty teeth of the driven gear by the seven teeth of our new driver. 30/7 = about 4.3 (or 4.3 : 1, etc.) This means that the driver gear has to turn about 4.3 times to get the much larger driven gear to turn once.
3
If desired, find the gear ratios for the intermediate gears. You can find the gear ratios involving the idler gears as well, and you may want to in certain situations. In these cases, start from the drive gear and work toward the load gear. Treat the preceding gear as if it were the drive gear as far as the next gear is concerned. Divide the number of teeth on each “driven” gear by the number of teeth on the “drive” gear for each interlocking set of gears to calculate the intermediate gear ratios.
In our example, the intermediate gear ratios are 20/7 = 2.9 and 30/20 = 1.5. Note that neither of these are equal to the gear ratio for the entire train, 4.3.
However, note also that (20/7) × (30/20) = 4.3. In general, the intermediate gear ratios of a gear train will multiply together to equal the overall gear ratio.
Method Two of Two:
Making Ratio/Speed Calculations
1
Find the rotational speed of your drive gear. Using the idea of gear ratios, it’s easy to figure out how quickly a driven gear is rotating based on the “input” speed of the drive gear. To start, find the rotational speed of your drive gear. In most gear calculations, this is given in rotations per minute (rpm), though other units of velocity will also work.[7]
For example, let’s say that in the example gear train above with a seven-toothed driver gear and a 30-toothed driven gear, the drive gear is rotating at 130 rpms. With this information, we’ll find the speed of the driven gear in the next few steps.
2
Plug your information into the formula S1 × T1 = S2 × T2. In this formula, S1 refers to the rotational speed of the drive gear, T1 refers to the teeth in the drive gear, and S2 and T2 to the speed and teeth of the driven gear. Fill in the variables until you have only one left undefined.
Often, in these sorts of problems, you’ll be solving for S2, though it’s perfectly possible to solve for any of the variables. In our example, plugging in the information we have, we get this:
130 rpms × 7 = S2 × 30
3
Solve. Finding your remaining variable is a matter of basic algebra. Just simplify the rest of the equation and isolate the variable on one side of the equals sign and you will have your answer. Don’t forget to label it with the correct units — you can lose points for this in schoolwork.
In our example, we can solve like this:
130 rpms × 7 = S2 × 30
910 = S2 × 30
910/30 = S2
30.33 rpms = S2
In other words, if the drive gear spins at 130 rpms, the driven gear will spin at 30.33 rpms. This makes sense — since the driven gear is much bigger, it will spin much slower.
Community Q&A
Question
If a 38 tooth gear running at 360rpm is driving another gear at 144rpm, what is the number of teeth on the driven gear?
Community Answer
T1*S1=S2*T2 where, T1=number of teeth on the driver gear, S1= angular speed on the driver gear, T2=number of teeth on the driven gear and S2=angular speed on the driven gear. 38 teeth*360rpm=T2*144rpm. T2=95 teeth on the driven gear.
Question
How do I determine my gear ratio in my gear box?
Community Answer
If you can not see the gears you can mark the shaft and the start point on the gear box and count the number of times it revolves when you spin the other shaft one full rotation.
Question
What is gear up and gear down?
Community Answer
Gear up is when you drive a smaller gear with a larger gear thus creating a faster RPM at the output but less torque. Gear down is to drive a larger gear with a smaller gear creating a slower RPM at the output but more torque.
Question
How is gear ratio related to a gear train?
Community Answer
The number of teeth on your drive gear and on your driven gear determines the speed of driven gear.
Question
What is breaking torque?
Community Answer
Breaking torque is the actual torque applied after all the engine inefficiencies (frictional torque) are removed from the torque the engine is calculated to produce (indicated torque).
Question
How do I determine the speed ratio between two gears given the RPM of each?
Community Answer
Simply divide the 2 numbers the same way you would if you had the number of teeth of each gear.
Question
Can we mesh a gear having 200 teeth with a 15-toothed gear? What is the affect of the gear ratio?
Community Answer
Yes. For each 1 rpm of the 200-toothed gear, the 15-toothed gear does 13.33 rpm.
Question
If the wheels are spinning at 500 RPM, what would be the gear ratio?
Community Answer
In order to answer this question, we need to know the Drive shaft RPM. Once you know that, it’s very simple math to determine the ratio.
Question
How is the velocity of the gear ratio dependent on the radius of the gears?
Community Answer
For two gears to be driving/meshing against one another, they must have the same tooth design/pitch. So a gear with 80 teeth compared to a compatible gear with 100 teeth should have 80% of the diameter.
Question
What is the connection between lpm and rpm?
Community Answer
Liters per minute = lpm (in terms of liquid). Rotations per minute = rpm (in terms of solid parts).
Video

Tips
The power needed to drive the load is geared up or down from the motor by the gear ratio. The motor must be sized to provide the power needed by the load after the gear ratio is taken in to consideration. A geared up system (where load RPM is greater than motor RPM) will require a motor that delivers optimal power at lower rotational speeds.
To see the principles of gear ratio in action, take a ride on your bike! Notice that it is easiest to go up hills when you have a small gear in front and a big one in the back. While it’s easier to turn the smaller gear with the leverage from your pedals, it takes many rotations to get your rear wheel to rotate compared to the gear settings you’d use for flat sections, making you go slower.
A geared down system (where load RPM is less than motor RPM) will require a motor that delivers optimal power at higher rotational speeds.

Co-authors: 31
Updated: August 12, 2019
Views: 1,221,345
Article Rating: 85% – 47 votes
Categories: Car Maintenance and Repair | Cars & Other Vehicles
Article Summary
References
↑http://bowlesphysics.com/images/Robotics_-_Gears_and_Gear_Ratios.pdf
↑http://www.demandaam.com/technical-support/aam-technical-tips/to-determine-gear-ratio
↑https://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/gear-ratio2.htm
↑https://sciencing.com/calculate-gear-ratio-6495601.html
↑http://bowlesphysics.com/images/Robotics_-_Gears_and_Gear_Ratios.pdf
↑https://www.sae.org/binaries/content/assets/cm/content/learn/education/motortoycar-samplelessonplan.pdf
↑https://sciencing.com/calculate-speed-ratio-7598425.html
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