Description – Acoustic Neuroma
Acoustic Neuroma is also known as vestibular schwannoma. An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops when the specialized (Schwann) cells surrounding the vestibular division of the auditory nerve, grow at an abnormal rate in the internal auditory canal. The tumor if left untreated, can grow into the auditory canal and all the way through to the brain.
Acoustic neuromas generally grow slowly, so symptoms develop gradually. The main ones – dizziness, hearing loss and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) – are due to the effects of the tumor pressing on the auditory nerve. If the tumor grows large enough, it also may press on the nearby facial nerve and cause facial paralysis or tingling. Although the tumors are not cancerous, they can become life-threatening if they grow so large that they press on brain structures that control vital body functions.
People with a hereditary disease called neurofibromatosis have a higher risk of developing acoustic neuromas and can develop tumors on both sides of the head.
Types of Acoustic Neuroma
There are two main types of acoustic neuroma:
A tumor affects only one ear. This variant is by far the more common, accounting for 95% of all instances of acoustic neuroma. It is also known as the ‘sporadic’ type and the causes behind its appearance are not well understood.
Tumors arise on both sides affecting both ears. Acoustic neuroma of this kind accounts for only 5% of reported cases, is clearly linked with a rare genetic disorder known as neurofibromatosis type II (NF2).
Pathophysiology of acoustic neuroma
As the acoustic neuroma grows, it compresses the hearing and balance nerves, usually causing unilateral (one-sided) hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ear), and dizziness or loss of balance. As it grows, it can also interfere with the facial sensation nerve (the trigeminal nerve), causing facial numbness.
It can also exert pressure on nerves controlling the muscles of the face, causing facial weakness or paralysis on the side of the tumor.
Vital life-sustaining functions can be threatened when large tumors cause severe pressure on the brainstem and cerebellum.
What causes acoustic neuroma?
The cause of acoustic neuromas is largely unknown. No environmental factor (such as cell phones or diet) has been scientifically proven to cause these tumors. Acoustic neuromas can be sporadic or caused by an inherited condition called neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2). Sporadic tumors occur 95% of the time, while 5% of acoustic neuromas occur with NF-2.
Neurofibromatosis is a rare disease that occurs in two forms. Type 1 causes tumors to grow on nerves throughout the body, especially the skin. Type 2 can cause acoustic neuromas on both the left and right sides, creating the possibility of complete deafness if the tumors grow unchecked. The presence of bilateral acoustic tumors affects the choice of treatment, as hearing preservation is a prime objective.
Who is at risk?
The only known risk factor for acoustic neuroma is having a parent with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). Most of these tumors appear spontaneously. They occur in people with no family history of the disease.
Scientists still don’t understand why some people get these tumors. Some risk factors might include:
A parathyroid neuroma, which is a benign tumor of the thyroid
Exposure to low levels of radiation during childhood
How to find if you have acoustic neuroma?
Signs and symptoms of acoustic neuroma are often subtle and may take many years to develop. They usually arise from the tumor’s effects on the hearing and balance nerves. Pressure from the tumor on adjacent nerves controlling facial muscles and sensation (facial and trigeminal nerves), nearby blood vessels, or brain structures may also cause problems.
As the tumor grows, it may be more likely to cause more noticeable or severe signs and symptoms.
Common signs and symptoms of acoustic neuroma include:
Hearing loss, usually gradual – although in some cases sudden – and occurring on only one side or more pronounced on one side
Ringing (tinnitus) in the affected ear
Unsteadiness, loss of balance
Facial numbness and very rarely, weakness or loss of muscle movement
In rare cases, an acoustic neuroma may grow large enough to compress the brainstem and become life-threatening.
Complications of acoustic neuroma
Several complications can arise, including:
Hearing loss: This may persist even after treatment.
Dizziness and loss of balance: If this occurs, it can make daily activities difficult to do.
Facial palsy: If surgery, or rarely, the tumor itself, affects the facial nerve, which is close to the acoustic nerve, the face may droop on one side, and swallowing and speaking clearly may be difficult. This is facial palsy, also known as Bell’s palsy.
Hydrocephalus: If a large tumor presses against the brainstem, this can affect the flow of fluid between the spinal cord and the brain. If fluid accumulates in the head, it can lead to hydrocephalus.
How is acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) diagnosed?
Because symptoms of these tumors resemble other middle and inner ear conditions, they may be difficult to diagnose. Preliminary diagnostic procedures include ear examination and hearing test. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans help to determine the location and size of the tumor. Early diagnosis offers the best opportunity for successful treatment.
A hearing test (audiometry): A test of hearing function, which measures how well the patient hears sounds and speech, is usually the first test performed to diagnose acoustic neuroma. The patient listens to sounds and speech while wearing earphones attached to a machine that records responses and measures hearing function. The audiogram may show increased “pure tone average” (PTA), increased “speech reception threshold” (SRT) and decreased “speech discrimination” (SD).
Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER): This test is performed in some patients to provide information on brain wave activity as a response to clicks or tones. The patient listens to these sounds while wearing electrodes on the scalp and earlobes and earphones. The electrodes pick up and record the brain’s response to these sounds.
Scans of the head: If other tests show that the patient may have an acoustic neuroma, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to confirm the diagnosis. MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves, rather than x-rays, and computers to create detailed pictures of the brain. It shows visual “slices” of the brain that can be combined to create a three-dimensional picture of the tumor. A contrast dye is injected into the patient. If an acoustic neuroma is present, the tumor will soak up more dye than normal brain tissue and appear clearly on the scan. The MRI commonly shows a densely “enhancing” (bright) tumor in the internal auditory canal.
Acoustic Neuroma Treatments
There are three main courses of treatment for acoustic neuroma:
Observation is also called watchful waiting. Because acoustic neuromas are not cancerous and grow slowly, immediate treatment may not be necessary. Often doctors monitor the tumor with periodic MRI scans and will suggest other treatment if the tumor grows a lot or causes serious symptoms.
Surgery for acoustic neuromas may involve removing all or part of the tumor.
There are three main surgical approaches for removing an acoustic neuroma:
Translabyrinthine, which involves making an incision behind the ear and removing the bone behind the ear and some of the middle ear. This procedure is used for tumors larger than 3 centimeters. The upside of this approach is that it allows the surgeon to see an important cranial nerve (the facial nerve) clearly before removing the tumor. The downside of this technique is that it results in permanent hearing loss.
Retrosigmoid/sub-occipital, which involves exposing the back of the tumor by opening the skull near the back of the head. This approach can be used for removing tumors of any size and offers the possibility of preserving hearing.
Middle fossa, which involves removing a small piece of bone above the ear canal to access and remove small tumors confined to the internal auditory canal, the narrow passageway from the brain to the middle and inner ear. Using this approach may enable surgeons to preserve a patient’s hearing.
Radiation therapy is recommended in some cases for acoustic neuromas. State-of-the-art delivery techniques make it possible to send high doses of radiation to the tumor while limiting expose and damage to surrounding tissue.
Radiation therapy for this condition is usually delivered in one of two ways:
Single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), in which many hundreds of small beams of radiation are aimed at the tumor in a single session.
Multi-session fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FRS), which delivers smaller doses of radiation daily, generally over several weeks. Early studies suggest multi-session therapy may preserve hearing better than SRS.
Both of these are outpatient procedures, which means they don’t require a hospital stay. They work by causing tumor cells to die. The tumor’s growth may slow or stop or it may even shrink, but radiation doesn’t completely remove the tumor.
Early diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma is key to preventing its serious consequences.
Overview – Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction.
The most common anaphylactic reactions are to foods, insect stings, medications, and latex.
If you are allergic to a substance, your immune system overreacts to this allergen by releasing chemicals that cause allergy symptoms. Typically, these bothersome symptoms occur in one location of the body. However, some people are susceptible to a much more serious anaphylactic reaction. This reaction typically affects more than one part of the body at the same time.
Anaphylaxis requires immediate medical treatment, including a prompt injection of epinephrine and a trip to a hospital emergency room. If it isn’t treated properly it can be fatal.
Pathophysiology of anaphylaxis
Interaction of antigen with IgE on basophils and mast cells triggers the release of histamine, leukotrienes, and other mediators that cause diffuse smooth muscle contraction (eg, resulting in bronchoconstriction, vomiting, or diarrhea) and vasodilation with plasma leakage (eg, resulting in urticaria or angioedema).
Anaphylactoid reactions are clinically indistinguishable from anaphylaxis but do not involve IgE and do not require prior sensitization. They occur via direct stimulation of mast cells or via immune complexes that activate complement.
The most common triggers of anaphylactic reactions are
Iodinated radiopaque contrast agents
Aspirin and other NSAIDs
What causes the anaphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis is a severe, whole-body allergic reaction to a chemical that has become an allergen. An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction.
After being exposed to a substance such as a bee sting venom, the person’s immune system becomes sensitized to it. When the person is exposed to that allergen again, an allergic reaction may occur. It happens quickly after the exposure. The condition is severe and involves the whole body.
Tissues in different parts of the body release histamine and other substances. This causes the airways to tighten and leads to other symptoms.
Some drugs (morphine, x-ray dye, aspirin, and others) may cause an anaphylactic-like reaction (anaphylactoid reaction) when people are first exposed to them. These reactions are not the same as the immune system response that occurs with true anaphylaxis. But, the symptoms, risk of complications, and treatment are the same for both types of reactions.
Anaphylaxis can occur in response to an allergen. Common causes include:
Pollen and other inhaled allergens rarely cause anaphylaxis. Some people have an anaphylactic reaction with no known cause. It is life-threatening and can occur at any time. Risks include a history of any type of allergic reaction.
There aren’t many known risk factors, but some things that might increase your risk include:
Previous history. If you’ve had anaphylaxis once, your risk of having this serious reaction increases. Future reactions might be more severe than the first reaction.
Allergies or asthma. People who have either condition are at increased risk.
Certain other conditions. These include heart disease and an abnormal accumulation of a certain type of white blood cell (mastocytosis).
Signs and Symptoms of anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis symptoms occur suddenly and can progress quickly. The early symptoms may be mild, such as a runny nose, a skin rash or a “strange feeling.” These symptoms can quickly lead to more serious problems, including:
Hives or swelling
The tightness of the throat
Low blood pressure
Feeling of doom
People who have had a severe allergic reaction are at risk for future reactions. Even if your first reaction is mild, future reactions might be more severe. That’s why it’s important to carry self-injectable epinephrine if you are at risk.
A patient would not necessarily experience all of these symptoms in the same episode.
There are several different types of reaction which could occur:
Uniphasic – these come on quickly and symptoms get rapidly worse, but once treated, the symptoms go and don’t return.
Bi-phasic – these are reactions which may be mild or severe to start with, followed by a period of time when there are no symptoms, and then increasing symptoms with breathing and blood-pressure problems.
Protracted anaphylaxis – this can last for several days and may need treatment in hospital for some time.
Complications of anaphylaxis
Complications from anaphylaxis are rare, and most patients completely recover. Myocardial ischemia may result from hypotension and hypoxia, particularly when underlying coronary artery disease exists. Ischemia or arrhythmias may result from treatment with pressors. Prolonged hypoxia also may cause brain injury. At times, a fall or other injury may occur when anaphylaxis leads to syncope.
Respiratory failure from severe bronchospasm or laryngeal edema can cause hypoxia, which could lead to brain injury if prolonged.
Tests used in the diagnosis of anaphylaxis may include:
Physical examination of symptoms and signs
Detailed questioning about what led up to the event
Blood tests to check for the presence of particular antibodies
Skin prick tests to confirm or rule out suspected triggers
Tests to exclude other medical conditions that can mimic certain symptoms of anaphylaxis – for example, unconsciousness is also a symptom of epilepsy.
Some ‘allergy tests’ are not proven
Some ‘tests’ that claim to diagnose allergies are not scientifically or medically proven. The test may have no value and is not proven to provide accurate information on your anaphylaxis trigger or triggers. This can be dangerous if it means you don’t get the medical attention you require.
Some alternative testing methods that may lead to inappropriate or inadequate treatment include:
Allergen elimination techniques
Cytotoxic food testing
IgG food antibody testing
Rinkel’s intradermal testing
Always seek advice from your doctor before consulting a complementary or alternative therapist about your allergies.
Treatment for anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate recognition and intervention. Patient management and disposition are dependent on the severity of the initial reaction and the treatment response. Measures beyond basic life support are not necessary for patients with purely local reactions. Patients with refractory or very severe anaphylaxis (with cardiovascular and/or severe respiratory symptoms) should be admitted or treated and observed for a longer period in the emergency department or an observation area.
Supportive care for patients with suspected anaphylaxis includes the following:
Airway management (eg, ventilator support with bag/valve/mask, endotracheal intubation)
Cardiac monitoring and/or pulse oximetry
Intravenous access (large bore)
Fluid resuscitation with isotonic crystalloid solution
Supine position (or position of comfort if dyspneic or vomiting) with legs elevated
The primary drug treatments for acute anaphylactic reactions are epinephrine and H1 antihistamines. Medications used in patients with anaphylaxis include the following:
Adrenergic agonists (eg, epinephrine)
Antihistamines (eg, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine)
H2 receptor antagonists (eg, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine)
Bronchodilators (eg, albuterol)
Corticosteroids (eg, methylprednisolone, prednisone)
Positive inotropic agents (eg, glucagon)
Vasopressors (eg, dopamine)
In extreme circumstances, cricothyrotomy or catheter jet ventilation may be lifesaving when orotracheal intubation or bag/valve/mask ventilation is not effective. Cricothyrotomy is easier to perform than emergency tracheostomy.
How to prevent anaphylaxis?
Agents causing anaphylaxis should be identified when possible and avoided. Patients should be instructed how to minimize exposure.
Beta-adrenergic antagonists, including those used to treat glaucoma, may exacerbate anaphylaxis and should be avoided, where possible. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may also increase susceptibility to anaphylaxis, particularly with insect venom-induced anaphylaxis.
Epinephrine is the drug of choice to treat anaphylaxis. Individuals at high risk for anaphylaxis should be issued epinephrine syringes for self-administration and instructed in their use. Intramuscular injection into the anterolateral thigh is recommended since it results in prompt elevation of plasma concentrations and has prompt physiological effects. Subcutaneous injection results in delayed epinephrine absorption.
Patients must be alerted to the clinical signs of impending anaphylaxis and the need to carry epinephrine syringes at all times and to use it at the earliest onset of symptoms.
Unused syringes should be replaced when they reach their use-by/expiration date, as epinephrine content and bioavailability of the drug decreases in proportion to the number of months past the expiration date.
Pre-treatment with glucocorticosteroids and H1 and H2 antihistamines is recommended to prevent or reduce the severity of a reaction where it is medically necessary to administer an agent known to cause anaphylaxis, for example, radio-contrast media.
Other important patient instructions include:
Personalized written anaphylaxis emergency action plan
Medical Identification (e.g., bracelet, wallet card)
Medical record electronic flag or chart sticker, and emphasis on the importance of follow-up investigations by an allergy/immunology specialist
WANT TO LEARN HTML? Click Here To Email Us
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language it was created by Berners-Lee in late 1991 , which is the most widely used language on Web to develop web pages.
Web browsers can read HTML files and compose them into visible or audible web pages. Browsers do not display the HTML tags and scripts, but use them to interpret the content of the page. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically along with cues for presentation, making it a markup language, rather than a programming language .
Html 2.0 1995
Html 3.2 1997
Html 4.01 1999
Html 5 2012
GETTING STARTED :
HTML files are just simple text files, so to start writing in HTML, you need a simple text editor ,for learning HTML a simple text editor like Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac) will be easy . HTML can be edited by using a professional HTML editor like Adobe Dreamweaver , Microsoft Expression Web,CoffeeCup HTML Editor .
To create a simple Webpage with notepad :
Open Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac)
Write some HTML into Text Editor :
Following is an example of a simple HTML document with Heading and Paragraph :
The following code can be copy/pasted in the “Try yourself” Section.
This is Heading
This is paragraph
Save the HTML page :
The finished page should be saved in .Html extension .
UTF-8 is the preferred encoding for HTML files .
To view the HTML page :
Open the saved HTML file in your browser.
I’m sure you’ve seen this before. It’s worth reminding ourselves of the changes around us that we can’t stop. It may not happen that way but it’ll be close in many respects:
In 1998, Kodak had 170,000 employees and sold 85% of all photo paper worldwide. Within just a few years, their business model disappeared and they went bankrupt.
Interestingly the inventor of digital photography in 1975 Steven Sasson worked for Kodak but Kodak ignored the new technology and in the process ignored their future!!
What happened to Kodak will happen in a lot of industries in the next 10 years – and most people don’t see it coming.
Did you think in 1998 that 3 years later you would never take pictures on paper film again? Yet digital cameras were invented in 1975. The first ones only had 10,000 pixels, but followed Moore’s law. So as with all exponential technologies, it was a disappointment for a long time, before it became way superior and got mainstream in only a few short years.
It will now happen with Artificial Intelligence, health, autonomous and electric cars, education, 3D printing, agriculture and jobs.
Welcome to the 4th Industrial Revolution.
Welcome to the Exponential Age.
Software will disrupt most traditional industries in the next 5-10 years.
Uber is just a software tool, they don’t own any cars, and are now the biggest taxi company in the world.
Airbnb is now the biggest hotel company in the world, although they don’t own any properties.
Artificial Intelligence : Computers become exponentially better in understanding the world. This year, a computer beat the best Go player in the world, 10 years earlier than expected.
In the US, young lawyers already don’t get jobs. Because of IBM Watson, you can get legal advice (so far for more or less basic stuff) within seconds, with 90% accuracy compared with 70% accuracy when done by humans. So if you study law, stop immediately. There will be 90% fewer lawyers in the future, only specialists will remain.
Watson already helps nurses diagnosing cancer, 4 times more accurate than human nurses.
Facebook now has a pattern recognition software that can recognize faces better than humans.
By 2030, computers will become more intelligent than humans.Autonomous Cars:
In 2018 the first self-driving cars will appear for the public. Around 2020, the complete industry will start to be disrupted. You don’t want to own a car anymore. You will call a car with your phone, it will show up at your location and drive you to your destination. You will not need to park it, you only pay for the driven distance and can be productive while driving.
Our kids will never get a driver’s license and will never own a car. It will change the cities, because we will need 90-95% fewer cars for that. We can transform former parking space into parks. 1.2 million people die each year in car accidents worldwide.
We now have one accident every 100,000 km, with autonomous driving that will^ drop to one accident in 10 million km. That will save a million lives each year.
Most car companies may become bankrupt. Traditional car companies try the evolutionary approach and just build a better car, while tech companies (Tesla, Apple, Google) will do the revolutionary approach and build a computer on wheels. I spoke to a lot of engineers from Volkswagen and Audi; they are completely terrified of Tesla.
Insurance Companies will have massive trouble because without accidents, the insurance will become 100x cheaper. Their car insurance business model will disappear.
Real estate will change. Because if you can work while you commute, people will move further away to live in a more beautiful neighborhood. Electric cars won’t become mainstream until 2020. Cities will be less noisy because all cars will run on electric.
Electricity will become incredibly cheap and clean: Solar production has been on an exponential curve for 30 years, but you can only now see the impact. Last year, more solar energy was installed worldwide than fossil. The price for solar will drop so much that all coal companies will be out of business by 2025.With cheap electricity comes cheap and abundant water.
Desalination now only needs 2kWh per cubic meter. We don’t have scarce water in most places, we only have scarce drinking water. Imagine what will be possible if anyone can have as much clean water as he wants, for nearly no cost.
Health: There will be companies that will build a medical device (called the “Tricorder” from Star Trek) that works with your phone, which takes your retina scan, your blood sample and you breathe into it. It then analyses 54 biomarkers that will identify nearly any disease. It will be cheap, so in a few years everyone on this planet will have access to world class medicine, nearly for free.
3D printing: The price of the cheapest 3D printer came down from $18,000 to $400 within 10 years. In the same time, it became 100 times faster.
All major shoe companies started 3D printing shoes.
Spare airplane parts are already 3D printed in remote airports.
The space station now has a printer that eliminates the need for the large number of spare parts they used to have in the past.
At the end of this year, new smart phones will have 3D scanning possibilities. You can then 3D scan your feet and print your perfect shoe at home.
In China, they already 3D printed a complete 6-storey office building. By 2027, 10% of everything that’s being^ produced will be 3D printed.
Business Opportunities: If you think of a niche^ you want to go in, ask yourself: “in the future, do you think we will have that?” and if the answer is yes, how can you make that happen sooner? If it doesn’t work with your phone, forget the idea.
And any idea designed for success in the 20th century is doomed in to failure in the 21st century.
Work: 70-80% of jobs will disappear in the next 20 years. There will be a lot of new jobs, but it is not clear if there will be enough new jobs in such a small time.
Agriculture: There will be a $100 agricultural robot in the future. Farmers in 3rd world countries can then become managers of their field instead of working all days on their fields. Agroponics will need much less water.
The first Petri dish produced veal is now available and will be cheaper than cow-produced veal in 2018. Right now, 30% of all agricultural surfaces is used for cows. Imagine if we don’t need that space anymore.
There are several startups that will bring insect protein to the market shortly. It contains more protein than meat. It will be labeled as “alternative protein source”
(because most people still reject the idea of eating insects).
There is an app call “moodies” which can already tell in which mood you are.
Until 2020 there will be apps that can tell by your facial expressions if you are lying. Imagine a political debate where it’s being displayed when they are telling the truth and when not.
Bitcoin will become mainstream this year and might even become the default reserve currency.
Longevity: Right now, the average life span increases by 3 months per year. Four years ago, the life span used to be 79 years, now it’s^ 80 years. The increase itself is increasing and by 2030, there will be more than one year increase per year. So we all might live for a long long time, probably way more than 100. By that time the elites will have a secondary Brain embedded close to both sides of their fronto-temporal scalp it stores information about their experiences books they read what they heard etc through a High Def Camera just below their eyelids. For those who can afford it forgetfulness will be a forgotten phenomenon.
Advanced stem cell technology will allow you to ” make ” your own organs or replace defective ones early. Life expectancy will be around 115 to 125 yrs in most of developed world and around 100 years in the rest of the world.
Education: The cheapest smart phones are already at $10 in Africa and Asia. Until 2020, 70% of all humans will own a smart phone. That means, everyone has the same access to world class education.
Are you ready for the future.???
ABOUT HER AND HER BACKGROUND.
Born :Diane Ernestine Earle Ross
March 26, 1944 (age 73)Bessemer, Alabama, U.S.
Residence :Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation: Singer, actress, record producer
Years active :1959–present
Spouse(s) Robert Ellis Silberstein
(m. 1971; div. 1977)
Arne Næss, Jr.
(m. 1986; div. 2000)
Children 5, including Rhonda Ross Kendrick, Tracee Ellis Ross, and Evan Ross
HER MUSICAL CAREER.
R&B soul disco jazz pop dance
Lu Pine Motown RCA EMI
The Primettes The Supremes The Temptations Marvin Gaye Lionel Richie Michael Jackson
A BRIEF ARTICLE ABOUT HER.
Diane Ernestine Earle Ross (born March 26, 1944), known professionally as Diana Ross, is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. Born and raised in Bessemer, Al, she rose to fame as the lead singer of the vocal group The Supremes, which, during the 1960s, became Motown’s most successful act, and is to this day the United States’ most successful vocal group, as well as one of the world’s best-selling girl groups of all time. As part of the Supremes, her success made it possible for future African-American R&B and soul acts to find mainstream success. Diana’s high-pitched and bright lyric-soprano voice has been enjoyed and still is by fans around the world. The group released a record-setting twelve number-one hit singles on the US Billboard Hot 100, including the hits “Where Did Our Love Go”, “Baby Love”, “Come See About Me”, “Stop! In the Name of Love”, “You Can’t Hurry Love”, “You Keep Me Hangin’ On”, “Love Child”, and “Someday We’ll Be Together”.
Following her departure from the Supremes in 1970, Ross released her eponymous debut solo album that same year, which contained the hits “Reach Out and Touch (Somebody’s Hand)” and the number-one hit “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough”. She later released the album Touch Me in the Morning in 1973; its title track reached number 1, as her second solo hit. That same year, her album “Lady Sings The Blues”, which was the original soundtrack of her film based on the life of jazz singer Billie Holiday, went to no. 1 on the Billboard Hot 200 Albums Chart. By 1975, the Mahogany soundtrack included her third number-one hit, “Theme from Mahogany (Do You Know Where You’re Going To)”. Her eponymous 1976 album included her fourth number-one hit, “Love Hangover”. In 1979, Ross released the album The Boss. Her 1980 semi-eponymous album Diana reached number 2 on the US Billboard albums chart, and spawned the number-one hit “Upside Down”, and the international hit “I’m Coming Out”. After leaving Motown, Ross achieved her sixth and final US number-one hit, with the duet “Endless Love”.
Ross has also ventured into acting, with a Golden Globe Award and Academy Award-nominated performance for her performance in the film Lady Sings the Blues (1972). She also starred in two other films, Mahogany (1975) and The Wiz (1978), later acting in the television films Out of Darkness (1994), for which she also was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, and Double Platinum (1999). Ross was named the “Female Entertainer of the Century” by Billboard magazine. In 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records declared Ross the most successful female music artist in history, due to her success in the United States and United Kingdom for having more hits than any female artist in the charts, with a career total of 70 hit singles with her work with the Supremes and as a solo artist. Ross has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, when her releases with the Supremes and as a solo artist are tallied. In 1988, Ross was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as member of the Supremes, alongside Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard. She was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2007, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. She is a 12-time Grammy nominee, never earning a competitive honor, but later became the recipient of the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012. In December 2016, Billboard magazine named her the 50th most successful dance artist of all time.
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The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from 4 to 18 strings, usually having 6. The sound is projected either acoustically or through electrical amplification (for an acoustic guitar or an electric guitar, respectively). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the right hand while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.
There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar (nylon-string guitar), the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings’ vibration, amplified by the body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber. The classical guitar is often played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique. The term “finger-picking” can also refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues, bluegrass, and country guitar playing in the United States.
Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but a solid body was eventually found more suitable, as it was less prone to feedback. Electric guitars have had a continuing profound influence on popular culture.
The guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, bluegrass, country, flamenco, folk, jazz, jota, mariachi, metal, punk, reggae, rock, soul, and many forms of pop.