Tag Archives: history

STROKE_ THE FULL MEANING AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW…

Pronunciation
(British) IPA: /stɹəʊk/
(America) enPR: strōk, IPA: /stɹoʊk/

Etymology 1 ▼ show
Noun
stroke (plural strokes)

An act of stroking moving one’s hand over a surface.
She gave the cat a stroke.
A blow or hit.
a stroke on the chin
▼ show
A single movement with a tool.
(golf) A single act of striking at the ball with a club.
(tennis) The hitting of a ball with a racket, or the movement of the racket and arm that produces that impact.
(rowing) The movement of an oar or paddle through water, either the pull which actually propels the vessel or a single entire cycle of movement including the pull.
(cricket) The action of hitting the ball with the bat; a shot.
A thrust of a piston.
An act of striking with a weapon
One of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished.
the stroke of a bird’s wing in flying, or of an oar in rowing
the stroke of a skater, swimmer, etc.
A powerful or sudden effort by which something is done, produced, or accomplished; also, something done or accomplished by such an effort.
a stroke of genius; a stroke of business; a master stroke of policy
A line drawn with a pen or other writing implement, particularly:
(chiefly) (UK) The slash, /.
(Unicode) The formal name of the individual horizontal strikethroughs (as in A̶ and A̵).
(linguistics) A line of a Chinese, Japanese or Korean character.
A streak made with a brush.
The time when a clock strikes.
on the stroke of midnight
(swimming) A style, a single movement within a style.
butterfly stroke
(medicine) The loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted.
(obsolete) A sudden attack of any disease, especially when fatal; any sudden, severe affliction or calamity.
a stroke of apoplexy; the stroke of death
▼ show
(rowing) The oar nearest the stern of a boat, by which the other oars are guided.
(rowing) The rower who is nearest the stern of the boat.
(professional wrestling) Backstage influence.
(squash) A point awarded to a player in case of interference or obstruction by the opponent.
(sciences) An individual discharge of lightning.
A flash of lightning may be made up of several strokes. If they are separated by enough time for the eye to distinguish them, the lightning will appear to flicker.
(obsolete) The result or effect of a striking; injury or affliction; soreness. ▼ show
An addition or amendment to a written composition; a touch.
to give some finishing strokes to an essay
A throb or beat, as of the heart.
Power; influence. ▼ show
(obsolete) appetite

Synonyms
(act of stroking, petting) caress
(blow) blow, hit, beat
(act of striking with a weapon) blow
(single movement with a tool)
(in golf)
(in tennis)
(in rowing)
(in cricket) shot
(thrust of a piston) push, thrust
(made with a pen) stroke of the pen
(made with a brush) brushstroke
(symbol) See slash and strikethrough
(time when a clock strikes) hour
(particular style of swimming)
(in medical sense) cerebrovascular accident, CVA
(in wrestling)
Translations (act of stroking)
French: caresse
Italian: carezza
Portuguese: carícia, cafuné
Russian: погла́живание
Spanish: caricia
Translations (blow) ▲ hide
French: coup
German: Schlag, Hieb
Italian: colpo
Portuguese: pancada, ataque
Russian: уда́р
Spanish: golpe
Translations (single movement with a tool) ▲ hide
French: coup
Italian: colpo
Portuguese: tacada
Spanish: golpe
Translations (- golf: single act of striking the ball) ▲ hide
German: Schlag
Italian: colpo
Portuguese: tacada
Russian: уда́р
Spanish: golpe
Translations (- tennis: single act of striking the ball) ▲ hide
German: Schlag
Italian: battuta
Portuguese: raquetada
Russian: уда́р
Translations (- rowing: movement of an oar or paddle through water) ▲ hide
German: Schlag
Italian: voga, vogata, palata, colpo di remo
Portuguese: remada
Russian: гребо́к
Spanish: remada
Translations (- cricket: shot) ▲ hide
Italian: colpo, giocata
Russian: уда́р
Translations (- thrust of piston) ▲ hide
French: temps
German: Hub
Italian: corsa, tempo
Translations (- act of striking with a weapon) ▲ hide
French: coup
German: Streich
Italian: colpo
Portuguese: pancada
Russian: уда́р
Translations (line drawn with a writing implement) ▲ hide
French: trait
German: Strich, Zug (seldom), Federstrich
Italian: tratto
Portuguese: traço
Russian: штрих
Spanish: trazo
Translations (- stroke of a Chinese character) ▲ hide
French: trait
German: Strich
Russian: черта́
Translations (streak made with a brush) ▲ hide
German: Strich
Italian: pennellata
Portuguese: pincelada
Russian: мазо́к
Spanish: pincelada
Translations (time when a clock strikes) ▲ hide
German: Schlag
Italian: rintocco
Portuguese: badalada
Russian: уда́р
Translations (particular style of swimming, single movement in that style) ▼ show
Translations (loss of brain function arising when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted) ▲ hide
French: accident vasculaire cérébral, attaque cérébrale, AVC, infarctus
German: Schlaganfall, Hirninfarkt, Hirnschlag, Apoplexie, (short form, colloquial) Apoplex, (colloquial) Schlagerl
Italian: colpo apoplettico, ictus, accidente cerebrovascolare
Portuguese: derrame, acidente vascular cerebral
Russian: парали́ч
Spanish: apoplejía, accidente cerebro vascular, ACV
Translations (rower who is nearest to the stern of the boat) ▲ hide
German: Schlagmann
Italian: capovoga
Translations (professional wrestling: backstage influence) ▲ hide
Portuguese: pancada
Etymology 2 ▲ hide
From Middle English stroken, straken, from Old English strācian (“to stroke”), from Proto-Germanic *straikōną (“to stroke, caress”).

Cognate with Saterland Frisian strookje (“to stroke; caress”), West Frisian streakje (“to stroke; caress”), German Low German straken, strieken, strakeln, striekeln (“to stroke; caress; fondle”), German streicheln.

Verb
stroke (strokes, present participle stroking; past and past participle stroked)

(transitive) To move one’s hand or an object (such as a broom) along (a surface) in one direction. ▼ show
(transitive) To hit the ball with the bat in a flowing motion.
(masonry) To give a finely fluted surface to.
(transitive) To row the stroke oar of.
to stroke a boat
Translations (to move one’s hand or an object over the surface of) ▲ hide
French: caresser
German: streicheln, streichen
Italian: accarezzare
Portuguese: acariciar
Russian: гла́дить
Spanish: acariciar
This text is extracted from the Wiktionary and it is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license

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History And Everything You Need To Know About Egypt.

History of Egypt

The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt‘s native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt’s ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries.

Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 6000 BC when the Nile River valley was first inhabited.[1] Ancient Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominantly native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC.

In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the HellenisticPtolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander’s former generals, Ptolemy I Soter. The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt’s becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire.

Roman rule in Egypt (including Byzantine) lasted from 30 BC to 641 AD, with a brief interlude of control by the Sasanian Empirebetween 619–629, known as Sasanian Egypt.[2] After the Muslim conquest of Egypt, parts of Egypt became provinces of successive Caliphates and other Muslim dynasties: Rashidun Caliphate (632-661), Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), Abbasid Caliphate (750–935), Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171), Ayyubid Sultanate (1171–1260), and the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.

Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801.[3] Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954.

The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by native Egyptians. President Gamal Abdel Nasser(president from 1956 to 1970) introduced many reforms and created the short-lived United Arab Republic (with Syria). His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement. His successor, Anwar Sadat (president from 1970 to 1981) changed Egypt’s trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitaheconomic policy. He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.

Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly thirty years of rule by former president Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of 2011 deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first democratically elected president in Egyptian history, Mohamed Morsi. Unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led to the 2013 Egyptian coup d’état.

Prehistory (pre–3100 BC)Edit

There is evidence of petroglyphs along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherersand fishermen was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 6000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.[4]

By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley.[5] During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badari culture and the successor Naqadaseries are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.[6]

Ancient Egypt (3100–332 BC)Edit

The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom.

A unified kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynastiesthat ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period (c. 2700–2200 BC), which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynastypyramid of Djoser and the Fourth DynastyGiza Pyramids.

The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years.[7] Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic-speaking Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.

The New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC) began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism, although some[who?] consider Atenism to be a form of monolatry rather than of monotheism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.[8]

A team led by Johannes Krause managed the first reliable sequencing of the genomes of 90 mummified individuals in 2017. Whilst not conclusive, because of the non-exhaustive time frame and restricted location that the mummies represent, their study nevertheless showed that these Ancient Egyptians “closely resembled ancient and modern Near Eastern populations, especially those in the Levant, and had almost no DNA from sub-Saharan Africa. What’s more, the genetics of the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the empire”.[9]

Non-native rule over EgyptEdit

Achaemenid ruleEdit

Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.

In the sixth century BC, the Achaemenid Empire conquered Egypt.[10] The entire Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, from 525 BC to 402 BC, save for Petubastis III, was an entirely Persian-ruled period, with the Achaemenid kings being granted the title of pharaoh.[10] The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch.[10] It fell to the Persians again in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle.[10]

Second Achaemenid conquestEdit

The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy, was effectively a short-living province of the Achaemenid Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC.[11] After an interval of independence, during which three indigenous dynasties reigned (the 28th, 29th and 30th dynasty), Artaxerxes III (358–338 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief second period (343–332 BC), which is called the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt, thus starting another period of pharaohs of Persian origin.[12]

Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt (332 BC–641 AD)Edit

The Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Dendera Temple complex.

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandriabecame the capital city and a center of Greekculture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.[13][14]

The last ruler from the Ptolemaic dynasty was Cleopatra, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony, who had died in her arms (from a self-inflicted stab wound) after Augustus had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.

The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often caused by an unwanted regime, and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. The native Egyptian/Coptic culture continued to exist as well (the Coptic language itself was Egypt’s most widely spoken language until at least the 10th century).

Egypt quickly became the Empire’s breadbasket supplying the greater portion of the Empire’s grain in addition to flax, papyrus, glass, and many other finished goods. The city of Alexandria became a key trading outpost for the Roman Empire (by some accounts, the most important for a time). Shipping from Egypt regularly reached India and Ethiopia among other international destinations.[15] It was also a leading (perhaps the leading) scientific and technological center of the Empire. Scholars such as Ptolemy, Hypatia, and Heron broke new ground in astronomy, mathematics, and other disciplines. Culturally, the city of Alexandria at times rivaled Rome in its importance.[16]

Christianity reached Egypt relatively early in the evangelist period of the first century (traditionally credited to Mark the Evangelist).[17] Alexandria, Egypt and Antioch, Syria quickly became the leading centers of Christianity.[18] Diocletian‘s reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantineera in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.[19]

Sassanid EgyptEdit

Sasanian Egypt (known in Middle Persiansources as Agiptus) refers to the brief rule of Egypt and parts of Libya by the Sasanian Empire, which lasted from 619 to 629,[20] until the Sasanian rebel Shahrbaraz made an alliance with the Byzantine emperor Heracliusand had control over Egypt returned to him.[20]

Arab and Ottoman Egypt (641–1882)Edit

Selim I (1470–1520), conquered Egypt

The Hanging Church of Cairo, first built in the 3rd or 4th century, is one of the most famous Coptic Orthodoxchurches in Egypt.

The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Arab Islamic Empire. The final loss of Egypt was of incalculable significance to the Byzantine Empire, which had relied on Egypt for many agricultural and manufactured goods.

When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with their Christian traditions as well as other indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.[17] These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.[21]

Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a TurcoCircassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies.[22] The Greek and Coptic languages and cultures went into a steep decline in favor of Arabic culture (though Coptic managed to last as a spoken language until the 17th century and remains a liturgical language today). The Mamluks continued to govern the country until the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The mid-14th-century Black Death killed about 40% of the country’s population.[23]

After the 15th century, the Ottoman invasion pushed the Egyptian system into decline. The defensive militarization damaged its civil society and economic institutions.[22] The weakening of the economic system combined with the effects of plague left Egypt vulnerable to foreign invasion. Portuguese traders took over their trade.[22] Egypt suffered six famines between 1687 and 1731.[24] The 1784 famine cost it roughly one-sixth of its population.[25]

The brief French invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte began in 1798. The expulsion of the French in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk, and British forces was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mamluks, and Albanians — who were nominally in the service of the Ottomans – wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) emerged as a dominant figure and in 1805 was acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbulas his viceroy in Egypt; the title implied subordination to the Sultan but this was in fact a polite fiction: Ottoman power in Egypt was finished and Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.[26]

His primary focus was military: he annexed Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans, but he kept the Sudan and his title to Egypt was made hereditary. A more lasting result of his military ambition is that it required him to modernize the country. Eager to adopt the military (and therefore industrial) techniques of the great powers, he sent students to the West and invited training missions to Egypt. He built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service.[26]

The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyptian variety of which became notable, transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century. The social effects of this were enormous: land ownership became concentrated and many foreigners arrived, shifting production towards international markets.[26]

British Protectorate (1882–1953)Edit

Nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919

British indirect rule lasted from 1882, when the British succeeded in defeating the Egyptian Army at Tel el-Kebir in September and took control of the country, to the 1952 Egyptian revolution which made Egypt a republic and when British advisers were expelled.

Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim (in September 1848), then by a grandson Abbas I (in November 1848), then by Said (in 1854), and Ismail (in 1863). Abbas I was cautious. Said and Ismail were ambitious developers, but they spent beyond their means. The Suez Canal, built in partnership with the French, was completed in 1869. The cost of this and other projects had two effects: it led to enormous debt to European banks, and caused popular discontent because of the onerous taxation it required. In 1875 Ismail was forced to sell Egypt’s share in the canal to the British Government. Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllerswho sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, “with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government.”[27]

Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmad Urabi a prominent figure. In 1882 he became head of a nationalist-dominated ministry committed to democratic reforms including parliamentary control of the budget. Fearing a reduction of their control, Britain and France intervened militarily, bombarding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel el-Kebir.[28] They reinstalled Ismail’s son Tewfik as figurehead of a de factoBritish protectorate.[29]

In 1914, the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the head of state, which in 1867 had changed from pasha to khedive, was changed again to sultan, to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in the First World War. Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle, Hussein Kamel, as sultan.[30]

In 1906, the Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement. After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on 8 March 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. The revolt led the UK government to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt’s independence on 22 February 1922.[31]

The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Saad Zaghlul was popularly elected as Prime Minister of Egyptin 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treatywas concluded. Continued instability due to remaining British influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d’état known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free Officers Movement forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad.

British military presence in Egypt lasted until 1954.[32]

Republican Egypt (since 1953)Edit

Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat.

On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser – the real architect of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest.

Reign of NasserEdit

Nasser assumed power as President in June 1956. British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June 1956. He nationalized the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis.

In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United Arab Republic. The union was short-lived, ending in 1961 when Syria seceded, thus ending the union. During most of its existence, the United Arab Republic was also in a loose confederationwith North Yemen (formerly the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen) known as the United Arab States.

In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel invaded and occupied Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, which Egypt had occupied since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Three years later (1970), President Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat.

Reign of SadatEdit

Sadat switched Egypt’s Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition.

In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. It was an attempt to regain part of the Sinai territory that Israel had captured six years earlier. Sadat hoped to seize some territory through military force, and then regain the rest of the peninsula by diplomacy. The conflict sparked an international crisis between the US and the USSR, both of whom intervened. The second UN-mandated ceasefire halted military action. While the war ended with a military stalemate, it presented Sadat with a political victory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in return for peace with Israel.[33]

Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat’s initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt’s expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most Egyptians.[34][dubious ] On 6 October 1981, Sadat and six diplomats were assassinated while observing a military parade commemorating the eighth anniversary of the October 1973 War. He was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.

Terrorist insurgencyEdit

In 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Copts and foreign tourists as well as government officials.[35] Some scholars and authors have credited Islamist writer Sayyid Qutb, who was executed in 1967, as the inspiration for the new wave of attacks.[36][37]

The 1990s saw an Islamist group, al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, engage in an extended campaign of violence, from the murders and attempted murders of prominent writers and intellectuals, to the repeated targeting of tourists and foreigners. Serious damage was done to the largest sector of Egypt’s economy—tourism[38]—and in turn to the government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the people on whom the group depended for support.[39]

Victims of the campaign against the Egyptian state from 1992–1997 exceeded 1,200[40] and included the head of the counter-terrorism police (Major General Raouf Khayrat), a speaker of parliament (Rifaat el-Mahgoub), dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and over 100 Egyptian police.[41]At times, travel by foreigners in parts of Upper Egypt was severely restricted and dangerous.[42] On 17 November 1997, 62 people, mostly tourists, were killed near Luxor. The assailants trapped the people in the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. During this period, Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya was given support by the governments of Iran and Sudan, as well as al-Qaeda.[43] The Egyptian government received support during that time from the United States.[43]

Civil unrest (2011-14)Edit

RevolutionEdit

In 2003, the Kefaya (“Egyptian Movement for Change”), was launched to oppose the Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms and greater civil liberties.

Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman‘s statement announcing Hosni Mubarak‘s resignation

On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak’s government. The objective of the protest was the removal of Mubarak from power. These took the form of an intensive campaign of civil resistancesupported by a very large number of people and mainly consisting of continuous mass demonstrations. By 29 January, it was becoming clear that Mubarak’s government had lost control when a curfew order was ignored, and the army took a semi-neutral stance on enforcing the curfew decree.

On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Vice President Omar Suleimanannounced that Mubarak had stepped down and that the Egyptian military would assume control of the nation’s affairs in the short term.[44][45] Jubilant celebrations broke out in Tahrir Square at the news.[46] Mubarak may have left Cairo for Sharm el-Sheikh the previous night, before or shortly after the airing of a taped speech in which Mubarak vowed he would not step down or leave.[47]

On 13 February 2011, the high level military command of Egypt announced that both the constitution and the parliament of Egypt had been dissolved. The parliamentary election was to be held in September.[48]

A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. On 28 November 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports of violence, although members of some parties broke the ban on campaigning at polling places by handing out pamphlets and banners.[49] There were however complaints of irregularities.[50]

Morsi’s presidencyEdit

The first round of a presidential election was held in Egypt on 23 and 24 May 2012. Mohamed Morsi won 25% of the vote and Ahmed Shafik, the last prime minister under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak, 24%. A second round was held on 16 and 17 June. On 24 June 2012, the election commission announced that Mohamed Morsi had won the election, making him the first democratically elected president of Egypt. According to official results, Morsi took 51.7 percent of the vote while Shafik received 48.3 percent.

On 8 July 2012, Egypt’s new president Mohamed Morsi announced he was overriding the military edict that dissolved the country’s elected parliament and he called lawmakers back into session.[51]

On 10 July 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt negated the decision by Morsi to call the nation’s parliament back into session.[52] On 2 August 2012, Egypt’s Prime Minister Hisham Qandil announced his 35-member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers including four from the influential Muslim Brotherhood, six others and the former military ruler Mohamed Hussein Tantawi as the Defence Minister from the previous Government.[53]

On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration immunizing his decrees from challenge and seeking to protect the work of the constituent assembly drafting the new constitution.[54] The declaration also requires a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of the constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular groups previously walked out of the constitutional constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi.[55]

The move was criticized by Mohamed ElBaradei, the leader of Egypt’s Constitution Party, who stated “Morsi today usurped all state powers & appointed himself Egypt’s new pharaoh” on his Twitter feed.[56][57] The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt.[58] On 5 December 2012, Tens of thousands of supporters and opponents of Egypt’s president clashed, hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails and brawling in Cairo’s streets, in what was described as the largest violent battle between Islamists and their foes since the country’s revolution.[59] Six senior advisors and three other officials resigned from the government and the country’s leading Islamic institution called on Morsi to stem his powers. Protesters also clamored from coastal cities to desert towns.[60]

Morsi offered a “national dialogue” with opposition leaders but refused to cancel a 15 December vote on a draft constitution written by an Islamist-dominated assembly that has ignited two weeks of political unrest.[60]

A constitutional referendum was held in two rounds on 15 and 22 December 2012, with 64% support, and 33% against. It was signed into law by a presidential decree issued by Morsi on 26 December 2012. On 3 July 2013, the constitution was suspended by order of the Egyptian army.

On 30 June 2013, on the first anniversary of the election of Morsi, millions of protesters across Egypt took to the streets and demanded the immediate resignation of the president. On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The presidency rejected the Egyptian Army’s 48-hour ultimatum, vowing that the president would pursue his own plans for national reconciliation to resolve the political crisis. On 3 July, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he had removed Morsi from power, suspended the constitution and would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections and named Supreme Constitutional Court‘s leader, Adly Mansour as acting president. Mansour was sworn in on 4 July 2013.

After MorsiEdit

During the months after the coup d’état, a new constitution was prepared, which took effect on 18 January 2014. After that, presidentialand parliamentary elections have to be held in June 2014. On 24 March 2014, 529 Morsi’s supporters were sentenced to death, while the trial of Morsi himself was still ongoing.[61]Having delivered a final judgement, 492 sentences were commuted to life imprisonment with 37 death sentences being upheld. On 28 April, another mass trial took place with 683 Morsi supporters sentenced to death for killing 1 police officer.[62] In 2015, Egypt participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.[63]

El-Sisi PresidencyEdit

In the elections of June 2014 El-Sisi won with a percentage of 96.1%.[64] Under President el-Sisi, Egypt has implemented a rigorous policy of controlling the border to the Gaza Strip, including the dismantling of tunnels between the Gaza strip and Sinai.

See also

References

Further reading

BEENIE MAN “HIS HISTORY,PAST,AND PRESENT” 

Beenie Man


Anthony Moses Davis (born 22 August 1973),[2] better known by his stage name Beenie Man, is a Grammy award-winning Jamaican reggae dancehall recording artist. He is referred to as the world’s “King of Dancehall”.

Beenie Man

Beenie Man performing in August 2008
Background information
Birth name Anthony Moses Davis
Also known as Ras Moses, The Doctor, The Girls Dem Sugar[1]
Born 22 August 1973 (age 43)
Kingston, Jamaica
Genres Reggae, dancehall, reggae fusion, ragga-soca
Occupation(s) Singer, songwriter, deejay, record producer
Years active 1979–present
Labels Brookland
Universal Republic
Island Jamaica/PolyGram Records
Virgin/EMI Records
Biography Edit


Davis was born in the Waterhouse district of Kingston in 1973.[2][3][4] He was involved in the music industry from a young age, starting toasting at the age of five, and was encouraged by his uncle Sydney Knowles, who played drums for Jimmy Cliff.[5][6] He won the Tastee Talent contest in 1981,[3][7] and Radio DJ Barry G introduced him to local sound system operators, who helped to establish the popularity of the young deejay, who became known as Beenie Man.[5] He recorded his debut single, “Too Fancy”, with record producer Henry “Junjo” Lawes in 1981, with Lawes also including him on the 1983 album Junjo Presents Two Big Sounds alongside established stars such as Dillinger, Fathead, and Ringo.[3] His debut album, The Invincible Beenie Man: The Ten Year Old DJ Wonder was produced by Bunny Lee and released in 1983,[8] his first hit single following the same year with the Winston Holness-produced “Over the Sea”.[3] In 1984 Beenie Man recorded some material with Barrington Levy (released ten years later), but his music career was put on hold while he finished school, and spent time travelling to the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada.[3]

1990s return Edit
Beenie Man continued performing and honed his craft beside the then dominant dancehall figures including Ninjaman, Admiral Bailey and Shabba Ranks. He found his artistic home at the Shocking Vibes studio where he continued to record singles with only moderate success in the early 1990s. His career gained momentum after a performance at the Reggae Sunsplash festival in 1992, and a rivalry with Bounty Killer began the following year after Beenie Man was accused of stealing Bounty Killer’s style and catch phrases.[3] The rivalry was captured on the 1994 album Guns Out, with the two artists settling the feud with a soundclash.[3] Beenie Man had his first number one single in Jamaica in 1993 with “Matie” (Produced by Ephraim Barrett,Donovan and Dave Mills on the Shelly Power Records label) and he won the DJ of the Year Award the same year, the first of eight consecutive awards.[7]

International stardom Edit
Partially as a result of prodding from his producers, Sly and Robbie, with whom he recorded cover versions of Bob Marley’s “Crazy Baldhead” and “No Woman No Cry” in 1994, the latter a Jamaican chart-topper, Beenie Man converted to the Rastafari movement, as did several of his contemporaries at the time, although in 2005 he stated “I have not converted. I was baptised an Ethiopian Orthodox and at the age of 10 I became a Judah Coptic.”[3][6] In 1994, he was signed by Island Records and released the critically acclaimed album Blessed, which established his reputation internationally.[3] In 1995 he toured the UK and joined up again with Barrington Levy to record an updated jungle version of Levy’s “Under Mi Sensi”.[3]

In 1995, Beenie Man collaborated with Dennis Brown and Triston Palma to release Three Against War and Mad Cobra and Lieutenant Stitchie on Mad Cobra Meets Lt. Stitchie & Beenie Man. He also collaborated with Lady Saw on “Healing”, Sanchez on “Refugee”, and Michael Prophet on “Gun ‘n’ Bass”, further establishing his reputation.[3] He took another step up the ladder in 1996, releasing the seminal Maestro, produced by Patrick Roberts and shot him to UK fame. During the period from the mid to late 1990s, Beenie Man dominated the Jamaican charts to the extent that he perhaps had a good claim to the crown of “Dancehall King”, a title only bestowed previously on Yellowman in the early 1980s. Beenie Man’s first real break into the United States came in 1997. He heard an instrumental rhythm by an unknown producer named Jeremy Harding, and demanded to add his voice to the rhythm. So this was the birth of his first international hit; he recorded “Who Am I” and the single quickly went Gold. It opened the doors for the world to see a new reggae star in the pages of Newsweek and other major media outlets. The same year, Beenie Man topped the Jamaican singles chart with seven different singles.[3]


Beenie Man appeared as himself in the 1997 film Dancehall Queen.

In 1998, Beenie Man headlined Reggae Sunsplash and signed to Virgin Records to release albums in the United States. His first American offering was The Doctor (1998). During the late 1990s, Beenie Man began his conquest of America with the hits, “Romie”, “Who Am I”, and “Girls Dem Sugar”, which featured American R&B singer, Mýa. During this time he received an impressive number of international music awards including a MOBO Award for Best International Reggae Act in 1998,[9] while remaining at the top of the local charts. In 2000, Beenie Man released Art & Life, which featured Arturo Sandoval and Wyclef Jean (The Fugees), for which received a Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album.[3] In the same year he co-produced (with Wyclef Jean) the debut album by actor Steven Seagal.[3] Beenie Man, like many dancehall artists, is outspoken on a number of social issues, as exemplified by songs such as “Steve Biko” and “Murderer”.[10][11][12]

In 2002, he had a sizeable hit with a duet with Janet Jackson called “Feel It Boy”, but his biggest break in America came in early 2004 with the release of a remix of “Dude”, featuring guest vocals by fellow Jamaican Ms. Thing as well as rhymes by Shawnna. He thus cemented his fan base on both sides of the Atlantic.

He had hits in the UK in 1998 with “Who am I” (#10), in 2003 with “Street Life” (#13) and “Feel It Boy” (UK #9), a duet with Janet Jackson, and in 2004 with “Dude” (#7) and “King of the Dancehall” (#14).[13]

He was also a judge for the 6th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists’ careers.[14]

In April 2008 it was announced that Beenie Man was to co-write and star in the film Kingston.[15] In October 2010 Beenie Man came out with the EP I’m Drinking Rum and Red Bull, which included four songs, “Im drinking Rum and Red Bull”, “I’m Okay”, and two versions of “Stack and Pile”. He later released the full album on 28 February 2011. “Im Drinking Rum and Red Bull” features Future Fambo. In September 2008 Beenie Man was cleared of charges of tax evasion.[16][17]

In April 2009, Beenie Man signed with Brookland Entertainment, a new record label formed by Eric Nicks and The Trackmasters, in preparation to release his new album The Legend Returns, the music video for the release of his new single “Gimme Gimme” being shot in Canada on 18 April 2009. The song “Let’s Go” was released on the Overproof Riddim compilation album in 2011.

In 2014 Beenie Man and long-term rival Bounty Killer put aside their differences and recorded a single together, “Legendary”.[18]

In 2015 Beenie Man recorded “Ghetto Youths Floss” alongside dancehall artist Demarco

In August 2015 Beenie Man recorded a collaboration track called “Sister Caro” with United States-based Nigerian Artiste “Henricci” that Pundits are saying is one of his best pieces of material in a long time.

His absence from the 2016 OVO Fest was attributed to combined attack of Zika Virus and Dengue.[19]

Personal life Edit

Beenie Man married Michelle “D’Angel” Downer on 22 August 2006. Downer was previously known as long-time girlfriend to Bounty Killer. They had a son together, Marco Dean Davis,[20] born in November 2006. In June 2007, Beenie Man separated from his wife due to her alleged infidelity. In March 2010, they released a duet single entitled “You Are My First”, although at the time they were separated.[20] The couple divorced in 2011.[21]

Controversy Edit

Anti-gay lyrics Edit
The lyrics to some of his songs have been criticised for inciting the murder of homosexuals.[22] He was removed from the 2004 MTV Video Music Awards after protests by gay-rights activists.[23] That same year, Beenie Man was stopped by police at Heathrow Airport in London, after the cancellation of a concert in the United Kingdom.[24] He then issued an apology for the lyrics through his record company.[25] In 2005, gay rights group OutRage! suspended their opposition to Beenie Man after he agreed not to play songs featuring homophobic lyrics, and he performed in London that year.[26] The following year, he claimed his lyrics were anti-paedophilia, not against consensual homosexual relationships.[27]

In 2007, it was reported that Beenie Man, along with several other artists, had signed the Reggae Compassionate Act, an agreement to cease performances of anti-gay material.[28] He later denied that he had signed the act.[29] As of 2010, protests have continued to cause cancellations of his concerts in some countries, including New Zealand, Belgium and the Netherlands.[30][31][32]

In 2012, Beenie Man apologised to the gay community for his earlier homophobic lyrics: “Let me make this clear and straight.[33] I have nothing against no one. I respect each and every human being, regardless of which race or creed, regardless of which religious belief you believe in, and regardless of which sexual preference you are, including gays and lesbian people. I respect all human…Please I am begging you do not have me up for some songs I wrote a long time ago. I love each and every one and am just begging each and everyone to do the same.”[34][35] In other interviews, however, he was quoted making statements such as “I never apologized” and “I told them to leave us alone, to try to understand where we are coming from.”[36][37] In 2015 prior to coming to New Zealand for a concert, GayNZ.com news site asked Beenie Man about the homophobic lyrics in his earlier songs. He hung up the telephone without answering.[38]

Yellowman feud Edit
In 2006, veteran deejay Yellowman publicly chastised Beenie Man for his hit “King of the Dancehall”. Known as “King Yellowman” since the 1980s, the deejay took exception to Beenie Man proclaiming himself “king”, as well as comments Beenie made regarding his appearance. Regarding the title of “king”, Yellowman stated: “Him trying to make people feel like him was here before me, but him never deh here before me, because dem planning to do dem official crowning them claim say is an official crowning but dem a use some a di media as some of them organisation …”.[39] Beenie Man made comments later that year in German-based Riddim Magazine, comparing Bounty Killer to Yellowman in appearance: “[Bounty Killer is] a great artiste and he’s ugly, too. He’s got a rough thing about him, Jamaicans like that from the Shabba Rankin’ days and the King Stitt days and the Yellowman days. They like ugly people.”[40] Yellowman responded, “Him can diss me all him like, but him caan diss the Jamaican public. What kinda ting that him say inna Riddim magazine? If me ugly, him pretty, me know say me wear shirt, him wear blouse, me wear pants, him wear skirt.”[40]

#johnnyblue1

Everything You Need To Know About Steve Wonder

Stevland Hardaway Morris (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins; May 13, 1950),[1] known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American musician, singer, songwriter, record producer, and multi-instrumentalist. A child prodigy, he is considered to be one of the most critically and commercially successful musical performers of the late 20th century.[2] Wonder signed with Motown’s Tamla label at the age of 11,[2] and he continued performing and recording for Motown into the 2010s. He has been blind since shortly after birth.[3]


Stevie Wonder

Wonder performing in 1973

Background information

Birth name Stevland Hardaway Judkins

Also known as Stevland Hardaway Morris (legal)

Little Stevie Wonder (stage)

Born May 13, 1950 (age 67)

Saginaw, Michigan, U.S.

Origin Detroit, Michigan, U.S.

Genres

Soul pop R&B funk jazz

Occupation(s)

Musician singer songwriter record producer multi-instrumentalist

Instruments

Vocals keyboards harmonica drums

Years active 1961–present

Labels

Tamla Motown

Associated acts Elton John, Michael Jackson, PJ Morton

Website steviewonder.net

Among Wonder’s works are singles such as “Superstition”, “Sir Duke”, “You Are the Sunshine of My Life” and “I Just Called to Say I Love You”; and albums such as Talking Book, Innervisions and Songs in the Key of Life.[2] He has recorded more than 30 U.S. top ten hits and received 25 Grammy Awards, one of the most-awarded male solo artists, and has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the top 60 best-selling music artists.[4] Wonder is also noted for his work as an activist for political causes, including his 1980 campaign to make Martin Luther King Jr.’s birthday a holiday in the United States.[5] In 2009, Wonder was named a United Nations Messenger of Peace.[6] In 2013, Billboard  magazine released a list of the Billboard Hot  100 All-Time Top Artists to celebrate the US singles chart’s 55th anniversary, with Wonder at number six.[7]

Early life
Stevie Wonder was born in Saginaw, Michigan, in 1950, the third of six children of Calvin Judkins and Lula Mae Hardaway, a songwriter. He was born six weeks premature which, along with the oxygen-rich atmosphere in the hospital incubator, resulted in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a condition in which the growth of the eyes is aborted and causes the retinas to detach; so he became blind.[3][8] When Wonder was four, his mother left his father and moved to Detroit with her children. She changed her name back to Lula Hardaway and later changed her son’s surname to Morris, partly because of relatives. Wonder has retained Morris as his legal surname. He began playing instruments at an early age, including piano, harmonica and drums. He formed a singing partnership with a friend; calling themselves Stevie and John, they played on street corners, and occasionally at parties and dances.

#johnnyblue1

Story of Jamaica

  

Jamaica (Listeni/əˈmkə/) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island, 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the nation-states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean, by area.[6]

Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came underSpanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish imported African slaves as labourers. Named Santiago, the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on slaves imported from Africa. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to havesubsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British imported Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.[7]

With 2.8 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country’s capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700.[8][9] Jamaicans predominately have African ancestry, with significant EuropeanChineseHakkaIndian, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[10]

Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch andhead of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaicafrom March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.[11][12][13][14]

A map of Jamaica

Etymology

The indigenous people, the Taíno, called it Xaymaca in Arawakan,[15] meaning the “Land of Wood and Water” or the “Land of Springs”.[16]

Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the “Rock.” Slang names such as “Jamrock”, “Jamdown” (“Jamdung” in Jamaican Patois), or briefly “Ja”, have derived from this.[17]

History

Main article: History of Jamaica

Prehistory

The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.[18] When Christopher Columbusarrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques (chiefs of villages). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.[18] The Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655.[18] The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/Arawak.[19]

Spanish rule (1509–1655)

Further information: Colony of Santiago (Jamaica)

Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494. His probable landing point was Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay,[20]although there is some debate that it might have been St. Ann’s Bay[citation needed]St. Ann’s Bay was named “Saint Gloria” by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann’s Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.[21] The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534 (at present-day St. Catherine).[22]

British rule (1655–1962)

Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean.[22] The Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In 1655, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort in Jamaica.[23] The name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish namemanteca bahía (or Bay of Lard), alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area.[24]

 

Henry Morgan was a famousCaribbean pirate and privateer; he had first come to the West Indies as an indentured servant, like most of the early English colonists.[25]

The English continued to import African slaves as labourers.

In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 white and 1,500 black.[26]By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and imported more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population.[27]

The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island’s early population, making up 2 thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwells forces in 1655, The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time.[28] Migration of large numbers Irish to the island continued into the 18th century.[29]

Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and then forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition. Some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, and from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonization of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World, also attracting those who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal.

An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves “Portugals”. After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain’s regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean pirates. With the pirates installed in Port Royal, the Spanish would be deterred from attacking. The British leaders agreed with the viability of this strategy to forestall outside aggression.[30]

When the English captured Jamaica in 1655, the Spanish colonists fled after freeing their slaves.[23] The slaves dispersed into the mountains, joining themaroons, those who had previously escaped to live with the Taíno native people.[31] During the centuries of slavery, Maroons established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, where they maintained their freedom and independence for generations. The Jamaican Maroonsfought the British during the 18th century. Under treaties of 1738 and 1739, the British agreed to stop trying to round them up in exchange for their leaving the colonial settlements alone, but serving if needed for military actions.[31] Some of the communities were broken up and the British deported Maroons to Nova Scotia and, later, Sierra Leone. The name is still used today by modern Maroon descendants, who have certain rights and autonomy at the community ofAccompong.

During its first 200 years of British rule, Jamaica became one of the world’s leading sugar-exporting, slave-dependent colonies, producing more than 77,000 tons of sugar annually between 1820 and 1824. After the abolition of the international slave trade in 1807,[32] the British began to import Indian and Chinese workers as indentured servants to supplement the labour pool. Most were recruited beginning in the 1840s after slavery was abolished, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. Many ethnic Southeast Asian and Chinese descendents continue to reside in Jamaica today.

Montpelier Plantation, the property of C. R. Ellis, Esq. M.P., c. 1820

By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica’s dependence on slave labour and a plantation economy had resulted in black people outnumbering white people by a ratio of almost 20 to 1. Although the UK had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly. While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce, prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church.[citation needed]

The House of Assembly in Jamaica resented and resisted the new laws. Members (then restricted to European-Jamaicans) claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament’s interference in island affairs. Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened. Following a series of rebellions on the island and changing attitudes in Great Britain, the British government formally abolished slavery by an 1833 act, beginning in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. The population in 1834 was 371,070, of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free black; 40,000 ‘coloured’ orfree people of color (mixed race); and 311,070 were slaves.[26]

In the 19th century, the British established a number of botanical gardens. These included the Castleton Botanical Gardens, developed in 1862 to replace the Bath Botanical Gardens (created in 1779) which was subject to flooding.Bath Botanical Gardens was the site for planting breadfruit, brought to Jamaica from the Pacific by Captain William Bligh. It became a staple in island diets. Other gardens were the Cinchona Plantation, founded in 1868, and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in 1874. In 1872, Kingston was designated as the island’s capital.

In 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice and Keeper of the Records in Jamaica. He headed the Supreme Court, Kingston between 1945 and 1950/1951. After Kenya achieved independence, its government appointed him as Chief Justice and he moved there.

Independence (1962)

Prince Charles and theDuchess of Cornwall during a visit to Jamaica in 2008

Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom. In 1958, it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation among the British West Indies. Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the federation in 1962.

Strong economic growth, averaging approximately 6% per annum, marked the first ten years of independence under conservative Jamaica Labour Partygovernments; they were led successively by Prime Ministers Alexander BustamanteDonald Sangster and Hugh Shearer. The growth was fueled by strong private investments in bauxite/alumina, tourism, the manufacturing industry and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector.

The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor.[citation needed] Combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global economy in 1970,[citation needed] the voters elected the PNP (People’s National Party) in 1972. They tried to implement more socially equitable policies in education and health, but the economy suffered under their leadership. By 1980, Jamaica’s gross national product had declined to some 25% below the 1972 level. Due to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing from the United States and others.

Economic deterioration continued into the mid-1980s, exacerbated by a number of factors. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa, closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. left the Jamaican industry. There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy.

Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. In 2011, a survey showed that approximately 60% of Jamaicans would prefer to become a British territory again, citing as problems years of social and fiscal mismanagement in the country

History Of The Grammys

 

 

A Grammy Award (originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards (television), the Tony Awards (stage performance), and the Academy Awards (motion pictures).

The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 59th Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 2015 to September 2016, was held on February 12, 2017, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles.

History

The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s.[1][2] As the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of what to call it; one working title was the Eddie, to honor the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958.[3][4][5]

The first award ceremony was held simultaneously in two locations on May 4, 1959 – Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, and Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City,[6] and 28 Grammys were awarded. The number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100.[7] The second Grammy Awards, also held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised,[8] but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971.

The Evolution and Impact of Technology and the Internet.

I’m sure you’ve seen this before. It’s worth reminding ourselves of the changes around us that we can’t stop. It may not happen that way but it’ll be close in many respects:

In 1998, Kodak had 170,000 employees and sold 85% of all photo paper worldwide.  Within just a few years, their business model disappeared and they went bankrupt.

Interestingly the inventor of digital photography in 1975  Steven Sasson worked for Kodak but Kodak ignored the new technology and in the process ignored their future!!

What happened to Kodak will happen in a lot of industries in the next 10 years – and most people don’t see it coming.
Did you think in 1998 that 3 years later you would never take pictures on paper film again? Yet digital cameras were invented in 1975. The first ones only had 10,000 pixels, but followed Moore’s law. So as with all exponential technologies, it was a disappointment for a long time, before it became way superior and got mainstream in only a few short years.
It will now happen with Artificial Intelligence, health, autonomous and electric cars, education, 3D printing, agriculture and jobs.
Welcome to the 4th Industrial Revolution.
Welcome to the Exponential Age.
Software will disrupt most traditional industries in the next 5-10 years.
Uber is just a software tool, they don’t own any cars, and are now the biggest taxi company in the world.
Airbnb is now the biggest hotel company in the world, although they don’t own any properties.
Artificial Intelligence : Computers become exponentially better in understanding the world. This year, a computer beat the best Go player in the world, 10 years earlier than expected.
In the US, young lawyers already don’t get jobs. Because of IBM Watson, you can get legal advice (so far for more or less basic stuff) within seconds, with 90% accuracy compared with 70% accuracy when done by humans. So if you study law, stop immediately. There will be 90% fewer lawyers in the future, only specialists will remain.
Watson already helps nurses diagnosing cancer, 4 times more accurate than human nurses.
Facebook now has a pattern recognition software that can recognize faces better than humans.
By 2030, computers will become more intelligent than humans.Autonomous Cars:
In 2018 the first self-driving cars will appear for the public. Around 2020, the complete industry will start to be disrupted. You don’t want to own a car anymore. You will call a car with your phone, it will show up at your location and drive you to your destination. You will not need to park it, you only pay for the driven distance and can be productive while driving.
Our kids will never get a driver’s license and will never own a car. It will change the cities, because we will need 90-95% fewer cars for that. We can transform former parking space into parks. 1.2 million people die each year in car accidents worldwide.
We now have one accident every 100,000 km, with autonomous driving that will^ drop to one accident in 10 million km. That will save a million lives each year.
Most car companies may become bankrupt. Traditional car companies try the evolutionary approach and just build a better car, while tech companies (Tesla, Apple, Google) will do the revolutionary approach and build a computer on wheels. I spoke to a lot of engineers from Volkswagen and Audi; they are completely terrified of Tesla. 
Insurance Companies will have massive trouble because without accidents, the insurance will become 100x cheaper. Their car insurance business model will disappear.
Real estate will change. Because if you can work while you commute, people will move further away to live in a more beautiful neighborhood. Electric cars won’t become mainstream until 2020. Cities will be less noisy because all cars will run on electric.
Electricity will become incredibly cheap and clean: Solar production has been on an exponential curve for 30 years, but you can only now see the impact. Last year, more solar energy was installed worldwide than fossil. The price for solar will drop so much that all coal companies will be out of business by 2025.With cheap electricity comes cheap and abundant water.
Desalination now only needs 2kWh per cubic meter. We don’t have scarce water in most places, we only have scarce drinking water. Imagine what will be possible if anyone can have as much clean water as he wants, for nearly no cost.
Health: There will be companies that will build a medical device (called the “Tricorder” from Star Trek) that works with your phone, which takes your retina scan, your blood sample and you breathe into it. It then analyses 54 biomarkers that will identify nearly any disease. It will be cheap, so in a few years everyone on this planet will have access to world class medicine, nearly for free.
3D printing: The price of the cheapest 3D printer came down from $18,000 to $400 within 10 years. In the same time, it became 100 times faster.
All major shoe companies started 3D printing shoes.
Spare airplane parts are already 3D printed in remote airports.
The space station now has a printer that eliminates the need for the large number of spare parts they used to have in the past.
At the end of this year, new smart phones will have 3D scanning possibilities. You can then 3D scan your feet and print your perfect shoe at home.
In China, they already 3D printed a complete 6-storey office building. By 2027, 10% of everything that’s being^ produced will be 3D printed. 
Business Opportunities: If you think of a niche^ you want to go in, ask yourself: “in the future, do you think we will have that?” and if the answer is yes, how can you make that happen sooner? If it doesn’t work with your phone, forget the idea.
And any idea designed for success in the 20th century is doomed in to failure in the 21st century.
Work: 70-80% of jobs will disappear in the next 20 years. There will be a lot of new jobs, but it is not clear if there will be enough new jobs in such a small time.
Agriculture: There will be a $100 agricultural robot in the future. Farmers in 3rd world countries can then become managers of their field instead of working all days on their fields. Agroponics will need much less water.
The first Petri dish produced veal is now available and will be cheaper than cow-produced veal in 2018. Right now, 30% of all agricultural surfaces is used for cows. Imagine if we don’t need that space anymore.
There are several startups that will bring insect protein to the market shortly. It contains more protein than meat. It will be labeled as “alternative protein source” 

(because most people still reject the idea of eating insects).
There is an app call “moodies” which can already tell in which mood you are.
Until 2020 there will be apps that can tell by your facial expressions if you are lying. Imagine a political debate where it’s being displayed when they are telling the truth and when not.
Bitcoin will become mainstream this year and might even become the default reserve currency. 
Longevity: Right now, the average life span increases by 3 months per year. Four years ago, the life span used to be 79 years, now it’s^ 80 years. The increase itself is increasing and by 2030, there will be more than one year increase per year. So we all might live for a long long time, probably way more than 100. By that time the elites will have a secondary Brain embedded close to both sides of their fronto-temporal scalp it stores information about their experiences books they read what they heard etc through a High Def Camera just below their eyelids. For those who can afford it forgetfulness will be a forgotten phenomenon.

Advanced stem cell technology will allow you to ” make ” your own organs or replace defective ones early. Life expectancy will be around 115 to 125 yrs in most of developed world and around 100 years in the rest of the world.
Education: The cheapest smart phones are already at $10 in Africa and Asia. Until 2020, 70% of all humans will own a smart phone. That means, everyone has the same access to world class education.

Are you ready for the future.???

Runtown “Mad Over You”(download.mp3)

DOWNLOAD HERE
Birth name :Douglas Jack Agu

Born : 19 August 1989 (age 27)[1]

Origin :Enugu State, Nigeria

Genres :R&B, hip hop, reggae

Occupation(s) :Singer, songwriter

Instruments :Vocals

Years active :2010–present

Labels :Independent

Associated acts ==>Davido Phyno Timaya M.I Uhuru WizzyPro DJ Khaled Wizkid Shizzi

          BRIEF ABOUT RUNTOWN==>

Douglas Jack Agu (born 19 August 1989), better known by his stage name Runtown, is a Nigerian singer, songwriter and producer with a diverse musical style mix of hip-hop, R&B, reggae and rap.[2] After moving to Lagos from Enugu State with Phyno in 2007, he started doing underground collaborations with artists like J-Martins and Timaya. In 2008, he partnered with Phyno to form a record label called Penthauz during which he released his first two singles “Party Like It’s 1980” and “Activity Pikin”.[3] He collaborated with Davido on his song “Gallardo” which brought him more attention. Few months later, he signed a multi-million Naira contract with Eric-Manny Entertainment owned by Prince Okwudili Umenyiora, the C.E.O of Dilly Motors.[4]

Shirley Frimpong-Manso

Shirley Frimpong-Manso (born 1977) is a Ghanaian film director, writer, and producer. She is the founder and CEO of Sparrow Productions, a film, television and advertising production company.[1] She won Best Director at the 6th Africa Movie Academy Awards. Frimpong-Manso is also a principal of Sparrow Station, a video streaming service for African entertainment from Sparrow and other African film producers.[2] In 2013, she was ranked the 48th most influential person in Ghana according to E.tv Ghana.[3]

Frimpong-Manso is described as one who “seeks to raise the standard of film production in Ghana and Africa by telling progressive African stories as seen through the eyes of Africans.”[1] According to her, she went into movies to change the way Ghana was portrayed.Her films are also known for their “fierce female leads,”[4] as they portray African women with agency who can be breadwinners and lead complex livesimg_20160711_215753.jpg

THE GUITAR’ STORY

The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from 4 to 18 strings, usually having 6. The sound is projected either acoustically or through electrical amplification (for an acoustic guitar or an electric guitar, respectively). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the right hand while fretting (or pressing against the frets) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.

There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar (nylon-string guitar), the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings’ vibration, amplified by the body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber. The classical guitar is often played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique. The term “finger-picking” can also refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues, bluegrass, and country guitar playing in the United States.

Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but a solid body was eventually found more suitable, as it was less prone to feedback. Electric guitars have had a continuing profound influence on popular culture.

The guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, bluegrass, country, flamenco, folk, jazz, jota, mariachi, metal, punk, reggae, rock, soul, and many forms of pop.

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