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When Your Goat Do Not Follow Your Instruction. *donttrythisathome*


Over 120million Died in The 350 years of Slave Trade From Africa.

The total number of African slaves sent to all parts of the world between 1500 and 1865 was estimated to be at least 12 million. When you consider that only one in ten made the trip alive, the number of Africans who were enslaved or killed in the 350 years of the slave trade had to be no less than 120 million people.

Q- FEVER Origin,Definition,Causes,Diagnosis,Symptoms,Treatment…Ect..!

A disease characterized by high fever, chills, muscular pains, headache, and sometimes pneumonia that is caused by a bacterium (Coxiella burnetii of the family Coxiellaceae) of which domestic animals serve as reservoirs and that is transmitted to humans especially by inhalation of infective airborne bacteria

Q Fever was first described in abattoir workers, people who butchered animals, in the 1920s by Edward Holbrook Derrick. Since the cause of the symptoms was unknown at the time, it was given the name Q Fever, where the “Q” stands from query. This name was chosen over the alternatives “abattoir fever” and

“Queensland rickettsial fever” in order to avoid slandering the cattle industry or the area where it was discovered. Frank MacFarlane Burnet and Mavis Freeman discovered the actual pathogen in 1937 by isolating it from one of Derrick’s patients, and one year later H.R. Cox and Gordon Davis isolated it from ticks.

It was originally thought to be part of the Rickettsia genus, which contains many tick and flea borne pathogens; two names were proposed by the different teams that isolated it. Cox and Davis favored Rickettsia daporica, which comes from the Greek word meaning able to pass through pores, the characteristic that made the organism so difficult to isolate. Burnet and Freeman proposed Rickettsia burnetii in reference to Burnet’s role in identifying the organism as part of the Rickettsia genus. Once it was determined that the species differed significantly from other organisms in Rickettsia, it was given its own genus named after Cox and became Coxiella burnetii, its current name

Epidemiology about Q-Fever
Although Q fever affects people worldwide, certain countries have higher incidences of disease. The rates in France (500 cases per million persons) and Australia (38 cases per million persons) are greater than those in the United States (0.28 cases per million persons), most likely reflecting the difference in importance of animal hosts between countries.5 Since Q fever became a reportable disease in the United States in 1999, the number of cases has increased dramatically.

According to a recent study, the cases of Q fever in the United States have increased from 21 cases per year (1978-1999) to 51 cases per year (2000-2004). The states with the highest incidence are in the Midwest; however, California reported the largest total number of cases. These data indicate that Q fever should no longer be considered a disease of occupational hazard (farmers, slaughterhouse workers, or veterinarians) in the United States but rather an endemic environmental disease.

Types of Q-Fever
Accute Q-Fever
Chronic Q-Fever
Q fever is caused by a bacterial infection with a bacterium called Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria are typically found in cattle, sheep, and goats. The animals transmit the bacteria in:

Fluids from giving birth
These substances can dry inside a barnyard where contaminated dust can float in the air. Humans get Q fever when they breathe in the contaminated air. In rare cases, drinking unpasteurized milk can cause infection. The bacteria cannot be spread directly from one human to another. The exact frequency of Q fever isn’t known because most cases aren’t reported.

Risk factors
Certain occupations place you at higher risk because you’re exposed to animals and animal products as part of your job. At-risk occupations include veterinary medicine, meat processing, livestock farming and animal research.
Simply being near a farm or farming facility may put you at higher risk of Q fever, because the bacteria can travel long distances, accompanying dust particles in the air.
Men are more likely to develop symptomatic acute Q fever.
Time of year. Q fever can occur at any time of the year, but the number of infections usually peaks in April and May in the U.S.
Signs and Symptoms
About half the people infected with Q fever will get sick. Signs and symptoms of Q fever may include:

Chills or sweats
Muscle aches
Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
Chest pain
Stomach pain
Weight loss
Non-productive cough

A Q fever recurrence can affect your heart, liver, lungs and brain, giving rise to serious complications, such as:

An inflammation of the membrane inside your heart, endocarditis can severely damage your heart valves. Endocarditis is the most deadly of Q fever’s complications.
Lung issues. Some people who have Q fever develop pneumonia. This can lead to acute respiratory distress, a medical emergency in which you’re not getting enough oxygen.
Pregnancy problems. Chronic Q fever increases the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirth.
Liver damage. Some people who have Q fever develop hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver that interferes with its function.
Q fever also can cause meningitis, an inflammation of the membrane surrounding your brain and spinal cord.
Diagnosis and Test
To diagnose Q fever, your doctor will perform one or more blood tests, along with additional tests if chronic Q fever is suspected.

Lab tests
Your doctor may want to check your blood for antibodies to the Coxiella burnetii antigen and for evidence of liver damage.

Imaging tests
Chest X-ray. Q fever can cause pneumonia in some people. A chest X-ray can be used to see if your lungs look healthy.
If chronic Q fever is suspected, your doctor may do an echocardiogram to check for problems with your heart valves.
Treatment and medications
Doxycycline and quinolone antibiotics are effective for treatment of Q fever. Treatment usually lasts for two weeks. Rifampin and doxycycline together are given for chronic Q fever. Chronic Q fever requires treatment for at least three years.
Minocycline has been found to be useful in treating post-Q fever fatigue. The dosage is 100 mg per day for three months.
Q fever can be prevented by the appropriate handling of potentially infective substances. For example, milk should always be pasteurized, and people who work with animals giving birth should carefully dispose of the tissues and fluids associated with birth.
Industries which process animal materials (meat, wool) should take care to prevent the contamination of dust within the plant. Vaccines are available for workers at risk for Q fever.


Eosinophilia – Definition, Causes, and Treatment.

Eosinophilia indicates elevated levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, usually related to an infectious, neoplastic, or allergic process. Often, high numbers of eosinophils may be present in other body fluids or tissues, but the term typically refers to peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is often defined as an absolute eosinophil count of ≥500 eosinophils/microliter (cells/microL) of blood. 500-1500cell/microL is considered mild, 1500-5000 cells moderate, and >5000 severe.

Allergic reactions are associated with a raised eosinophil count, slight at first but increasing with each exposure. Mast cells and basophils associated with a hypersensitivity reaction produce and release a number of cytokines, which evoke IgE production. IgE, elevated levels, stimulates eosinophil production. IL-5 is a chemokine that is extremely important in the final differentiation of mature eosinophils, as well as their recruitment into sites of inflammation, and their prolonged survival.

In addition, eosinophils produce growth factors which are responsible for the fibrotic response to inflammatory injury in affected tissues. This is because the eosinophils release cytokines which not only induce inflammation, but also attract more eosinophils and other immune cells of various types to the organ site. The release of various chemicals and reactive oxygen species by the eosinophils and other cells creates more tissue damage.

Eosinophilia is classified as primary or secondary, in addition to the hypereosinophilic syndromes.

Primary Eosinophilia

Primary eosinophilia is a rise in the peripheral eosinophil count without any underlying condition to account for it. It is subclassified into clonal and idiopathic types.
Clonalprimary eosinophilia is the type of eosinophilia that is due to the proliferation of a clone of eosinophils in the bone marrow and is found in leukemias or other myeloproliferative disorders. Idiopathic primary eosinophilia is a term used to refer to peripheral blood eosinophilia without any detectable cause.
Secondary Eosinophilia

Secondary eosinophilia is the result of other disorders not associated with bone marrow proliferation, such as atopy, asthma, and most commonly helminthic infestations.

Hypereosinophilic Syndromes

Hypereosinophilic syndromes are disorders which are characterized by eosinophilia above 1500/µL persisting for at least 6 months, with no underlying disease condition, but associated with organ dysfunction due to eosinophil recruitment into tissues which suffer resulting damage. These include the syndromes of pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate with eosinophilia, such as:

Churg-Strauss syndrome
Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
Causes and Risk factors        
There are numerous reasons your eosinophil count may be elevated. Some of the causes are benign and require little treatment. It is not uncommon for the elevated count to be transient and resolve without treatment. Let’s review some of the causes now.

Parasite infections: The most common cause of eosinophilia is a parasite infection include schistosomiasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, and ascariasis. 

Drug reactions:  Medications can trigger eosinophilia, sometimes without any obvious signs or symptoms. The most common medications associated with eosinophilia include antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporins), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (aspirin, ibuprofen), ranitidine (for gastroesophageal reflux), phenytoin (anti-seizure) and allopurinol (used to treat gout). The most severe form is called drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Fortunately, most people will not have these reactions when they receive these medications.

Atopy: Atopy is a particular reaction that occurs in the body. Typically, atopy refers to asthma, seasonal allergies (also called allergic rhinitis), and eczema. It is not uncommon for someone to have more than one of these medical conditions as they are related. These are some of the most common causes of mild to moderate eosinophilia, particularly in children. Similarly, food allergies can also cause elevated eosinophil counts.

Eosinophilia esophagitis (EoE):  This is a disorder characterized by eosinophils spreading to esophagus which normally does not contain eosinophils. About 50% of people with EoE will also have elevated eosinophil counts in the blood.

Cancers:  There are several cancers, particularly blood cancers that are known for increasing the eosinophil count. These include a rare type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) called eosinophilic leukemia. Other causes include several of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (such as, essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera) B-cell and T-cell lymphoma, as well as adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and cervix.

Clinical Manifestations
Symptoms of eosinophilia vary based on the underlying conditions.

Frequent wheezing and breathlessness are symptoms typical to eosinophilia caused due to asthma.
In case of eosinophilia due to parasitic infections symptoms may include

Abdominal pain
Frequent infections
Mouth sores
Few other symptoms of eosinophilia include

Weight loss
Night sweats
Enlargement of lymph nodes
Skin rashes
Tingling and numbness due to nerve damage, these symptoms however occur rarely.
Complications arises during Eosinophilia
Weight loss
Night sweats
Lymph node enlargement
Skin rashes
Numbness and tingling due to nerve damage
In case of eosinophilia types following complications arise

Myocardial fibrosis
Chronic heart failure
Diagnosis and Test

First, a careful history is taken, to elicit travel to places where helminthiasis is rife; exposure to drugs; ingestion of possibly helminth-infected food; family history of myeloproliferative disorders, allergies, and drug hypersensitivity.

Symptoms which should be inquired about include:

Those of helminth infestation
Symptoms of organ involvement such as lung infiltration, inflammatory bowel disease, or vasculitis of various organs
Symptoms of allergies of the skin or respiratory system in particular
Systemic symptoms such as fever, joint pain and swelling, or lymphadenopathy
Drug exposure should be classified based on the association between the drug and the chances of eosinophilia. For instance, anticonvulsants, allopurinol (a drug used in gout), and semisynthetic penicillins have a higher chance of causing eosinophilia.

Specific findings may also point to the culprit drug, such as:

Anticonvulsants, if hepatitis or DRESS is present
NSAIDs or semisynthetic penicillins in pneumonitis
Immunevasculitis with phenytoin or allopurinol
Nephritis with cephalosporins
Physical Examination

The patient should have a detailed examination of the cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic systems. Such findings as a skin rash, asthma or lung congestion, or generalized lymphadenopathy are suspicious of underlying conditions such as pulmonary syndromes with eosinophilia, myeloproliferative disorders, and vasculitis or atopic disease. This examination will also help to pick up complications due to hypereosinophilia, the most important of which include pulmonary, neurologic, and cardiac dysfunction.

Screening and Testing

In addition to the basic blood counts which revealed the eosinophilia, other tests may include:

Peripheral blood smear for abnormal eosinophils or blast cells suggestive of myeloproliferative disorders
Stool ova and parasite tests on three consecutive specimens
Parasite tests such as thin and thick blood smears
Specific serological tests for parasites
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies which are raised in some types of immune disease
Organ-specific tests such as renal or hepatic function tests as clinically indicated
Chest radiograph
Electrocardiogram,cardiac troponin
IgE levels and other immunoglobulins
Serologic tests for vasculitis and other connective tissue disorders
Specialized tests such as bone marrow aspirate examination and cytogenetic tests for myeloproliferative disorders
Echocardiography if other tests are normal, or if cardiac symptoms are present
Pulmonary function tests
Tissue biopsies for parasites such as Trichinella, filariasis, and visceral larva migrans
Imaging tests based on symptoms or signs of organ involvement, such as CT scan of the chest or abdomen
Treatment and Medications
Treatment tackles the underlying cause of the condition, whether it is caused due to allergens, medical reaction or a parasitic reaction. Treatments such as intake of oral Corticosteroid drugs which are steroid hormones produced from the adrenal cortex of the vertebrates. Corticosteroid drugs such as Prednisolone are preferred at single doses of 30–60mg. These treatments are effective and non-toxic.

Natural Home Remedies foreosinophilia

Ginger, it is a very good herb in lowering down the increase count of eosinophils. It is taken by preparing its juice by mashing it properly and put this in a tea drink this tea one to two times daily for few days which gives better results.
Turmeric powder is a very good remedy to treat patients who have higher values of eosinophils. It is prepared by putting a pinch of turmeric powder in one glass of water and makes it boil and drink.
Ginseng is a very good home remedy in reducing the inflammation in airways and thus lowers down the count of high eosinophils.
Eucalyptus its oil is used in reducing the various symptoms in eosinophilia.
Fenugreekits seeds are used in combating the infections that are related to increasing eosinophilia. The seeds of fenugreek are boiled in one glass of water the two tablespoons of seeds are added in a glass of water drink this mixture every day morning and evening.
HolyBasil (Tulsi leaves) it is a very effective home remedy known for treating high eosinophilic count. The chewing of two to three leaves is recommended for better results.
Malabar Nut It is the very useful home remedy in reducing the symptoms of eosinophilia. Drink its juice daily for better results.
Neem(Azadirachta indica) It is used as medicine since many years it has a property of anti-bacterial, antifungal, antiviral, sedative, anti-diabetic so it is useful for various purposes it helps in removing unwanted harmful toxins from the body. Thus it is helpful in controlling various types of allergies related to food, in the skin like eczema, psoriasis etc.
Prevention of Eosinophilia
Cause of eosinophilia is not always clear. As a result, there are no specific steps to prevent eosinophilia.

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